Pronunciation in British English
In the United Kingdom, many different people say words in different ways. For example, a man from a place near London may not pronounce his "r"s the same as a man from Scotland or a man from Northern Ireland. Across the country, the accent is different. For instance, in Liverpool, one speaks with a "scouse" accent, and in London, one speaks with a "cockney" accent. Different variations on all of British English exist from the manner in which words are pronounced to the manner in which they are spelt. One place people speak English in a different way is Cornwall, where the Cornish dialect is spoken.
Britain, like other countries, has languages other than English. In Wales many speak Welsh; in Scotland some people speak Gaelic, and in Ireland a few people speak Irish. However, that is not the subject of this particular article.
Spelling in British English
British English often keeps more traditional ways of spelling words than American English.
- Some British English words end in "re", because the words were originally taken from French. They are often simplified to "er" in American English
- British English: centre, litre, metre [A unit of distance; Not to be confused with meter - a device for measuring]
- American English: center, liter, meter.
- Some British English words end in "our" and are simplified to "or" in American English. The English spelling also came from the French language.
- British English: colour, favour, honour, labour
- American English: color, favor, honor, labor
- Some British English words the have come originally from the Greek language use "ph". This has been changed to "f" in some other languages.
- British English: Sulphur
- American English: Sulfur
- Some words in British English use "-ise" where "-ize" is used in American English. Spelling them with "-ize" is also done in Britain sometimes. However, this is very much frowned upon and would not be considered acceptable if writing for a British audience.
- British English: colonisation, realisation, organisation
- American English: colonization, realization, organization
- The word "gray" is also a special case, as it is normally spelled "gray" in American English and "grey" in British English.
Gray only exists in Britain as an American name, not as the colour.
- Many of these rules are also used in other countries outside of the United Kingdom, mostly in countries that are members in the Commonwealth of Nations.
Vocabulary in British English
In British English, "dock" refers to the water in the space between two "piers" or "wharfs". In American English, the "pier" or "wharf" could be called a "dock", and the water between would be a "slip".
Some common differences:
British – American
- accelerator – throttle
- aubergine - eggplant
- autumn – fall
- biscuit – cookie (small, hard, crunchy: soft cookies are called cookies in British English)
- bonnet – hood (of a car)
- boot – trunk (of a car)
- bum – butt
- caravan – trailer, mobile home
- chips (skinny) – French fries There is no equivalent for regular British Chips, frequently served with fish or meat pies
- courgette – zucchini
- crisps – chips
- face flannel – washcloth
- flat – apartment
- football – soccer
- garden – yard
- handbag – purse (A purse in British English is a wallet or small evening bag carried by females)
- jumper – sweater
- lift – elevator
- lorry – truck
- manual gearbox – stick shift
- metro, underground, tube – subway (A subway in British English is an underground foot passage)
- motorway – freeway
- mum – mom
- nappy – diaper
- number plate – license plate
- pants - underpants
- pavement – sidewalk
- pram – stroller
- petrol – gas or gasoline
- phone box - phone booth
- post – mail, mailbox
- railway – railroad
- shopping trolley – shopping cart
- take-away – take-out
- trousers – pants
- torch – flashlight
- tram – streetcar
Usage in different countries
American English is only an official language in the United States. In Canada, the accent sounds extremely similar to American English but with few exceptions (see Canadian English). The American spelling in Canada is sometimes used, but traditionally, the British Spelling (with the exceptions of some words like programme, -isation/-ise/-isable, chilli, etc.) is used. Although Commonwealth English is the most spoken, American English is seen more often on the internet. American English vocabulary dominates the visual media: "movies" (British: "films") and television.
All Commonwealth nations and Africa learn Commonwealth English, while American English is often learnt in the Americas and China. Z pronounced 'Zee' is only seen in the U.S.A and less commonly in Canada, while Z pronounced 'Zed' is spoken almost everywhere else. The United Kingdom and Ireland use British layout keyboards, while Australia, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand and the U.S.A use American layout keyboards. In continental Europe English as a second language is nowadays sometimes even taught in American English, except perhaps in Scandinavia and the Netherlands.