Wim Crusio

Wim E. Crusio
Wim Crusio, August 2006
Born (1954-12-20) 20 December 1954 (age 65)
ResidencePompignac, France
Alma materRadboud University Nijmegen
Known forBehavioral neurogenetics of the hippocampus, mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders
AwardsIBANGS Distinguished Service Award
Scientific career
Fieldsbehavioral and neural genetics, behavioral neuroscience
InstitutionsRadboud University Nijmegen, University of Heidelberg, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS; Paris, Orleans, and Talence (Bordeaux)), University of Massachusetts Medical School
Doctoral advisorHans van Abeelen
Other academic advisorsBram van Overbeeke,
Hendrik de Wit,
Victor Westhoff
Doctoral studentsLaure Jamot,
Abdelkader Lagmouch,
Yann Mineur,
Maude Bernardet
Other notable studentsFrans Sluyter
Author abbrev. (botany)Crusio
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Wim E. Crusio is a Dutch scientist working on the genetics of behavior and the nervous system. He is "directeur de recherche" (research director, a job title for a senior researcher) with the French National Centre for Scientific Research in Talence, France.

Education and career

Crusio got in 1979 a master's degree and then in 1984 a PhD from the Radboud University Nijmegen. He performed research in behavior genetics,[1] plant taxonomy,[2] and vegetation science for his master's degree.[3] His revision of the genus Anubias continues to generate interest.[4] His work in plant taxonomy continued for several more years. He wrote about the genus Samolus.[5][6] In 1986 he described a new species of the Aroid genus Lagenandra, L.dewitii.[7] Crusio studied the inheritance of the behavior of mice exploring a new environment for his PhD He also looked at the effects on this behavior of not being able to smell (anosmia). He used quantitative-genetic methods such as the diallel cross for this.[8] Crusio worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Heidelberg from 1984 to 1987. This was supported by a NATO Science Fellowship[9] and an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellowship.[10] Crusio spent the year 1988 in Paris (France) supported by a fellowship from the Fyssen Foundation.[11] He returned to Heidelberg as a senior research scientist. He was then recruited as "chargé de recherche" by the CNRS. He worked at first in an institute of the Paris Descartes University (Paris V). He was promoted to research director in 1994.[9] In 1997 he moved to the CNRS campus in Orléans.[9] Crusio became professor of psychiatry at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts in 2000 and returned to the CNRS in 2005.[9] He became a group leader in the "Centre de Neurosciences Intégratives et Cognitives" in Talence, a suburb of Bordeaux.[12][13] He is currently adjunct director of the "Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives et Intégratives d'Aquitaine".[14]


Exploratory behavior

Animals will often explore a new environment if they have the chance. Crusio thought that this would be favorable: it would make it possible for animals to find water, food, etc. However, moving around in unfamiliar spaces is dangerous.[15] Such stabilizing selection would leave genetic traces.[16] Crusio did indeed find such traces for mice[15][17][18] and for Paradise fish.[19]

Hippocampal mossy fibers

In Heidelberg, Crusio became interested in the inheritance of variations in the neuroanatomy of the mouse hippocampus. He studied the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) projections in this brain area. Crusio showed that about 50% of the variation found between different inbred mouse strains in the sizes of their IIPMF were due to genetic differences. Herbert Schwegler and Hans-Peter Lipp had found that these variations are correlated with learning a two-way active avoidance task. Animals with smaller projections learned much faster than animals with larger IIPMF.[20][21] Together with Schwegler and Lipp, Crusio showed that an inverse correlation could be found for spatial learning in a radial arm maze task. Animals with larger IIPMF learned better in this task.[22][23] Injecting mouse pups with thyroxine results in larger IIPMF projections.[24] When mice from a strain with small IIPMF projections zere treated in this way, they could learn better in the radial maze.[25][26] Crusio and his collaborators think that this correlation is causal.[27] Not everybody believes this.[28]

Mouse model of depression

Mice that suffer unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) show symptoms that look like depression in humans.[29] Researchers were thinking that deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis (the birth of new nerve cells) might be the cause of depression.[30] Crusio and collaborators did experiments to look at changes in behavior and neurogenesis in stressed mice. They showed large changes in levels of aggression,[31] anxiety,[32] depressive-like behaviors,[32] and learning.[33] At the same time, there was a large drop in neurogenesis.[33] The results dependent very much on the strain and sex. There did not appear to be a clear-cut correlation between the different changes. They concluded that their data do not support the idea that deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis alone are the cause of depression. However, they do not disprove this hypothesis either.[33]

Mouse model of autism

Crusio has recently looked into the possibility that FMR1 knockout mice can perhaps be used as a model for autism. The Fragile X syndrome is caused by a deficiency of the FMR1 gene. Patients often show autistic symptoms. A good mouse model for the Fragile X syndrome is available because there are mice in which the Fmr1 gene has been changed so that it does not work any more.[34] A review of the work that has been done with these mice in many different laboratorie did indeed show that these animals have autistic-like symptoms.[35] For example, they show changes in social behavior and this is a key symptom of autism.[36][37]

Editorial activities

Crusio is the founding editor-in-chief of Genes, Brain and Behavior.[38] This journal started in 2002 and has an impact factor of 4.061. This ranks it 63rd out of 237 listed journals in the Neurosciences category and 6th out of 48 listed journals in the Behavioral sciences category.[39] He and his co-editors developed standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies for this journal.[40] These standards are gradually being accepted in the field.[41][42] Since 2017, Crusio is editor-in-chief of Behavioral and Brain Functions. He is also an academic editor of PLoS ONE and served as associate editor of Behavioral and Brain Sciences (1991–2008) and The ScientificWorldJournal (2002-2011). Crusio serves or has served on the editorial boards of Behavioral and Brain Functions, Behavior Genetics (1991–1995), Behavioural Brain Research (1997–2007), BMC Neuroscience, BMC Research Notes, Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Journal of Visualized Experiments, Molecular Brain, Neurogenetics (1998–2006), and Physiology and Behavior. He edited special issues for the journals Behavior Genetics,[43] Behavioural Brain Research,[44] Physiology and Behavior (with Robert Gerlai),[45] Hippocampus (with Aryeh Routtenberg),[46] and Brain Research Bulletin (with Catherine Belzung and Robert Gerlai).[47] He also edited a handbook on molecular genetic techniques for behavioral neuroscience together with Robert Gerlai.[48][49] He is currently editing the Cambridge Handbooks in Behavioural Genetics, a series of handbooks published by Cambridge University Press.[50] The first volume, Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse, will appear in 2013.[51]

Community service

Crusio was one of two co-founders of the International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society in 1996[52] He served as member-at-large of the executive committee, treasurer, and president (1998–2001) of this society.[53] He received from this society in 2011 the "Distinguished Service Award" for exceptional contributions to the field of behavioral neurogenetics.[54][55] Crusio also served on the executive committees of the Behavior Genetics Association (from which he resigned in protest to Glayde Whitney's 1995 presidential address),[56] the European Brain and Behaviour Society,[57] and the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS).[58] Crusio has been a President of the Dutch Behavior Genetics Contact Group.[59] He has been a member of several program committees for scientific meetings, most notably the 8th and 10th[60] World Congresses of Psychiatric Genetics and the 2008, 2009 (co-chair), 2010 (chair), and 2011 (chair) Annual Meetings of the IBNS.[61]

Important papers

According to the Web of Science, Crusio's articles have been cited over 3200 times and he has an h-index of 33.[62] Some important papers are:


  1. Schoots AF, Crusio WE, van Abeelen JH (November 1978). "Zinc-induced peripheral anosmia and exploratory behavior in two inbred mouse strains". Physiology and Behavior 21 (5): 779–784. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(78)90018-5. PMID 733951. 
  2. Crusio, W. (1979). "A revision of Anubias Schott (Araceae). (Primitiae Africanae XII)". Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 79 (14): 1–48. 
  3. Sykora, KV (1984). "A synecological study of the Lolio‑Potentillion anserinae Tuexen 1947 by means of permanent transects. II: Riveri­ne eurysaleutic habitats". Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C, Biological and medical sciences 87 (2): 181–230. 
  4. Klix, Wolf-Dieter (2009). "Protokoll der Mitgliederversammlung 2009 des Arbeitskreises Wasserpflanzen in Dresden". Aqua Planta 34 (4): 150–151. http://www.arbeitskreis-wasserpflanzen.de/aquaplanta.php. Retrieved 22 August 2010. "Announcement of re-issue on CD of 1987 German edition of Anubias revision". 
  5. Crusio WE (20 February 1982). "Het geslacht Samolus L." (in Dutch). Communications of the Dutch Waterplant Society 2: 13–25. 
  6. Crusio WE (26 May 1984). "Notes on the genus Samolus L. (Primulaceae)". Communications of the Dutch Waterplant Society 6: 13–16. 
  7. Crusio W.E. and de Graaf A. (April 1986). "Lagenandra dewitii Crusio et de Graaf (Araceae), eine neue Art aus Sri Lanka" (in German). Aqua Planta 11 (2): 56–59. 
  8. Template:Cite book
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "Curriculum Vitae Wim E. Crusio". Retrieved 15 August 2009.
  10. "Publications by Humboldt Research Fellows from abroad in 2005: Biosciences, Life Sciences". Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  11. "Liste des boursiers 1987/1988". Annales de la Fondation Fyssen 4. 1989. 
  12. "CNIC UMR5228 - Equipe 3 - Neurogénétique comportementale" (in French). Retrieved 15 August 2009.
  13. Deris, Yves. "Nouvel arrivant à l'INB, aujourd'hui : Wim CRUSIO" (in French). Retrieved 23 August 2009.
  14. "Crusio Wim". The Aquitaine Institute for Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Crusio WE, van Abeelen JH (February 1986). "The genetic architecture of behavioural responses to novelty in mice". Heredity 56 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1038/hdy.1986.8. PMID 3943979. 
  16. Template:Cite book
  17. Crusio WE, Schwegler H, van Abeelen JH (February 1989). "Behavioral responses to novelty and structural variation of the hippocampus in mice. I. Quantitative-genetic analysis of behavior in the open-field". Behavioural Brain Research 32 (1): 75–80. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(89)80074-9. PMID 2930636. 
  18. Crusio WE (November 2001). "Genetic dissection of mouse exploratory behaviour". Behavioural Brain Research 125 (1–2): 127–132. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(01)00280-7. PMID 11682103. 
  19. Gerlai R, Crusio WE, Csányi V (July 1990). "Inheritance of species-specific behaviors in the paradise fish (Macropodus opercularis): A diallel study". Behavior Genetics 20 (4): 487–498. doi:10.1007/BF01067715. PMID 2256892. 
  20. Schwegler H, Lipp HP, Van der Loos H, Buselmaier W (November 1981). "Individual hippocampal mossy fiber distribution in mice correlates with two-way avoidance performance". Science 214 (4522): 817–819. doi:10.1126/science.7292015. PMID 7292015. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7292015. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  21. Schwegler H, Lipp HP (April 1981). "Is there a correlation between hippocampal mossy fiber distribution and two-way avoidance performance in mice and rats?". Neuroscience Letters 23 (1): 25–30. PMID 7231813. 
  22. Crusio WE, Schwegler H, Lipp HP (November 1987). "Radial-maze performance and structural variation of the hippocampus in mice: a correlation with mossy fibre distribution". Brain Research 425 (1): 182–185. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(87)90498-7. PMID 3427419. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0006-8993(87)90498-7. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  23. Schwegler H, Crusio WE, Brust I (1990). "Hippocampal mossy fibers and radial-maze learning in the mouse: a correlation with spatial working memory but not with non-spatial reference memory". Neuroscience 34 (2): 293–298. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(90)90139-U. PMID 2333144. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0306-4522(90)90139-U. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  24. Lauder JM, Mugnaini E (July 1977). "Early hyperthyroidism alters the distribution of mossy fibres in the rat hippocampus". Nature 268 (5618): 335–337. doi:10.1038/268335a0. PMID 887162. 
  25. Schwegler H, Crusio WE, Lipp HP, Brust I, Mueller GG (July 1991). "Early postnatal hyperthyroidism alters hippocampal circuitry and improves radial-maze learning in adult mice". Journal of Neuroscience 11 (7): 2102–2106. PMID 2066776. http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2066776. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  26. Crusio WE, Schwegler H (July 1991). "Early postnatal hyperthyroidism improves both working and reference memory in a spatial radial-maze task in adult mice". Physiology & Behavior 50 (1): 259–261. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(91)90530-2. PMID 1946727. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0031-9384(91)90530-2. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  27. Crusio WE, Schwegler H (April 2005). "Learning spatial orientation tasks in the radial-maze and structural variation in the hippocampus in inbred mice". Behavioral and Brain Functions 1 (3): 1–11. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-1-3. PMC 1143776. PMID 15916698. 
  28. Template:Cite book
  29. Willner P (December 1997). "Validity, reliability and utility of the chronic mild stress model of depression: a 10-year review and evaluation". Psychopharmacology 134 (4): 319–329. doi:10.1007/s002130050456. PMID 9452163. http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00213/bibs/7134004/71340319.htm. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  30. Kempermann G, Kronenberg G (September 2003). "Depressed new neurons--adult hippocampal neurogenesis and a cellular plasticity hypothesis of major depression". Biological Psychiatry 54 (5): 499–503. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00319-6. PMID 12946878. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006322303003196. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  31. Mineur YS, Prasol DJ, Belzung C, Crusio WE (September 2003). "Agonistic behavior and unpredictable chronic mild stress in mice". Behavior Genetics 33 (5): 513–519. doi:10.1023/A:1025770616068. PMID 14574128. http://www.kluweronline.com/art.pdf?issn=0001-8244&volume=33&page=513. Retrieved 16 August 2009. 
  32. 32.0 32.1 Mineur YS, Belzung C, Crusio WE (November 2006). "Effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress on anxiety and depression-like behavior in mice". Behavioural Brain Research 175 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2006.07.029. PMID 17023061. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Mineur YS, Belzung C, Crusio WE (December 2007). "Functional implications of decreases in neurogenesis following chronic mild stress in mice". Neuroscience 150 (2): 251–259. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.09.045. PMID 17981399. 
  34. The Dutch-Belgian Fragile X Consortium (July 1994). "Fmr1 knockout mice: a model to study fragile X mental retardation". Cell 78 (1): 23–33. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(94)90569-X. PMID 8033209. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0092-8674(94)90569-X. Retrieved 15 August 2009. 
  35. Bernardet M, Crusio WE (2006). "Fmr1 KO mice as a possible model of autistic features". TheScientificWorldJournal 6: 1164–1176. doi:10.1100/tsw.2006.220. PMID 16998604. 
  36. Mineur YS, Huynh LX, Crusio WE (March 2006). "Social behavior deficits in the Fmr1 mutant mouse". Behavioural Brain Research 168 (1): 172–175. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2005.11.004. PMID 16343653. 
  37. Spencer CM, Alekseyenko O, Serysheva E, Yuva-Paylor LA, Paylor R (October 2005). "Altered anxiety-related and social behaviors in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of fragile X syndrome". Genes, Brain and Behavior 4 (7): 420–430. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2005.00123.x. PMID 16176388. 
  38. Pagel, Mark (7 May 2004). "The order in a billion sequences". Times Higher Education. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=188536&sectioncode=26. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  39. "Web of Science". 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
  40. Crusio WE, Goldowitz D, Holmes A, Wolfer D (February 2009). "Standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies". Genes, Brain and Behavior 8 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2008.00438.x. PMID 18778401. 
  41. "Instructions for authors". European Journal of Neuroscience. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  42. Editorial (2009-09). "Troublesome variability in mouse studies". Nature Neuroscience 12 (9): 1075. doi:10.1038/nn0909-1075. PMID 19710643. http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v12/n9/abs/nn0909-1075.html. Retrieved 30 August 2009. 
  43. Crusio, Wim E. (September 1996). Crusio WE. ed. "Special issue: The neurobehavioral genetics of aggression". Behavior Genetics 26 (5): 459–504. doi:10.1007/BF02359749. http://www.springerlink.com/content/qh123t688p47/?p=19b76978284d46ad9ba5698f4eb3c769&pi=77. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  44. Crusio WE, ed. (September 1998). "Special issue: The genetic dissection of brain-behaviour relationships: An introduction to neurobehavioural genetics". Behavioural Brain Research 95 (1): 1–142. doi:10.1016/S0166-4328(97)00203-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%234840%231998%23999049998%2317924%23FLA%23&_cdi=4840&_pubType=J&_auth=y&_acct=C000025358&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=513493&md5=094a14a497927f37dfc984b8df87c6f0. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  45. Gerlai RT, Crusio WE, ed. (August 2001). "Special issue: Bridging the gap from gene to behavior: Recombinant DNA techniques merge with behavioral neurobiology". Physiology and Behavior 73 (5): 671–886. doi:10.1016/S0031-9384(01)00583-2. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%234868%232001%23999269994%23263983%23FLA%23&_cdi=4868&_pubType=J&_auth=y&_acct=C000025358&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=513493&md5=036dbb55c5c22b306db757cbb81fc27f. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  46. Routtenberg A, Crusio WE, ed. (February 2001). "Special Issue: Gene Targeting and Hippocampal Function". Hippocampus 12 (1): 1–108. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/90010627/issue. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  47. Belzung C, Crusio WE, Gerlai RT, ed. (January 2002). "Special issue: Behavioral neurogenetics, the genetic dissection of brain and behavior". Brain Research Bulletin 57 (1): 1–131. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(01)00629-3. PMID 11827730. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/90010627/issue. Retrieved 14 August 2009. 
  48. Template:Cite book
  49. "Crusio, W.E. [WorldCat Identities]". Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  50. "Series - Cambridge Handbooks in Behavioural Genetics". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  51. "Behavioral Genetics of the Mouse". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  52. "IBANGS History". IBANGS Homepage. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  53. "Past Officers and Executive Committee Members". Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  54. "IBANGS Awards". IBANGS Homepage. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  55. "Call for 2011 IBANGS award nominations". IBANGS Homepage. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  56. Template:Cite book
  57. "Past committee members". Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  58. "IBNS History of Officers". Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  59. Crusio, W.E. (1991). "Obituary Sjeng Kerbusch (1947-1991)". Behavior Genetics 21 (5): 431–432. 
  60. "Xth World Congress on Psychiatric Genetics - Committees". Archived from the original on 30 September 2002. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  61. "IBNS Committees/Mission Statements". Retrieved 11 August 2009.
  62. "Wim Crusio A-7070-2008". ResearcherID. Retrieved 15 February 2013.

Other websites

  • Curriculum Vitae
  • "Crusio Wim". Homepage. The Aquitaine Institute for Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience. Retrieved 12 January 2012.

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