South Vietnam was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 after its fall. It occupied in the southern of what is now the current Vietnam. The country was south of the local Demilitarized Zone, and North Vietnam was to the north of it.
As the Republic of Vietnam, it was ruled first by Ngo Dinh Diem (Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data/iana scripts' not found.) and then by a military dictatorship after his assassination.
The division of Vietnam took place during the Geneva Conference of 1954. In 1975, the communist forces took over the country and renamed its largest city, Saigon, to Ho Chi Minh City after Ho Chi Minh.