Roman Empire

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Roman Empire

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27 BCE – 476 CE (traditional dates)[1][2]
395 CE - 480 CE (Western)
395 CE – 1453 (Byzantine)

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The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 CE, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink).[3]
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, 117 CE, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink).[3]
StatusTemplate:Infobox country/status text
Capital
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Common languages
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Religion
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GovernmentSemi-elective, functionally absolute monarchy</td></tr>
Emperor </td></tr>
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LegislatureSenate</td></tr>
Historical eraClassical era to Late Middle Ages</td></tr>
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Area
25 BCE[4][5]2,750,000 km2 (1,060,000 sq mi)</td></tr>
117 CE[4][6][7]5,000,000–6,500,000 km2 (1,900,000–2,500,000 sq mi)</td></tr>
390 CE[4]4,400,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi)</td></tr>
Population
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CurrencySestertius,[n 2] Aureus, Solidus, Nomisma</td></tr>
ISO 3166 code[[ISO 3166-2:Template:ISO 3166 code|Template:ISO 3166 code]]</td></tr>
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The Roman Empire [n 7] was the largest empire of the ancient world. Its capital was Rome, and its empire was based in the Mediterranean. The Empire dates from 25 BCE, when Octavian became the Emperor Augustus, till it fell in 476 CE, marking the end of the Ancient World and the beginning of the Middle Ages, or Dark Ages.[8]

The empire was the third stage of Ancient Rome. Rome was first ruled by Roman kings, then by the Roman Republic, then by an emperor.

Many modern lands were once part of the Roman Empire, for example Britain (not Scotland), Spain, Portugal, France (Gaul), Italy, Greece, Turkey, Germany, Egypt, Levant, Crimea, Switzerland, and the north coast of Africa. The main language of the Roman Empire was Latin; Greek was an important secondary language.

The western part of the Roman Empire continued for about 500 years, and the eastern part, with Greece and Anatolia, continued for about a thousand years more. The eastern part was called the Byzantine Empire, its capital being Constantinople.

Governing the Empire

In order to control their large empire, the Romans developed important ideas about law and government. They developed the best army in the world at that time, and ruled by force. They had fine engineering, and built roads, cities, and outstanding buildings. The Empire was divided into provinces, each with a governor plus civil and military support. Letters, both official and private, would constantly go to and from Rome.

Trade was most important for Rome, a city of more than a million people, by far the largest city in the world. They needed, and got, wheat from Egypt, tin from Britannia, grapes from Gaul, and so on. In return, the Romans built provincial capitals into fine cities, protected them from raids by barbarians, and provided education and career opportunities for young people in the provinces, such as jobs in the Roman Army.

In principle, emperors had absolute control, and could do as they pleased. In practice, they faced many difficult problems. They had a staff of what we call 'civil servants' and the advice of the Roman Senate. The emperor had to decide what were the most important issues facing the Empire, and what should be done about them. Most of them tried to do two sorts of thing. One was to do things to improve the life of Romans in peacetime. The other was to fight and defeat Rome's enemies. A wealthy empire always has enemies.

With kings and emperors, a big problem is the order of succession. Kings were sometimes followed by their eldest son, if he was capable of ruling. For Roman emperors, more often it would be an adopted son. It worked like this. The emperor would notice an outstanding young man from one of the best families. He would adopt him as his son. Before he died he would make clear whom he thought should succeed him, by making him a Roman consul, or by stating in his will that the younger man should succeed him. Sometimes this worked; sometimes it did not. Every now and then there would be a civil war between claimants to the throne.

An adopted son or two gave the emperor more choices. Some emperors had no son; some[who?]had sons who were killed in battle, or died during a plague. Later on, emperors grew so weak that the Roman army would just pick one of their generals to be the next emperor. This often led to civil war. The life stories of the emperors can be found in List of Roman emperors.

The Romans fought many wars against other countries, and enjoyed watching violent sports. They enjoyed watching races between chariots pulled by horses, and fights between men using weapons (gladiators). Unlike in modern sports, the fighters were often killed in fights. Romans enjoyed these shows in the Colosseum.

The Romans had great civil engineering. They built many large public buildings and villas, aqueducts to carry water, stone bridges and roads. Some of these things can still be seen today. Many famous writers were Romans, including Cicero and Virgil.

The New Testament of the Bible tells about the Romans in the life of Jesus Christ. During Jesus' life, the Romans, who were pagans, ruled his country. Later, several emperors tried to destroy Christianity but they did not succeed. By 312 Template:Sc the emperor Galerius allowed people freedom to follow Christianity, and the next year, a general, Constantine, became emperor and converted to Christianity.

The city of Rome was taken over several times by barbarians, notably in 410 Template:Sc when the Goths sacked the city (looting). The last Western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, resigned in 476 Template:Sc. The Roman Empire would last another 1,000 years as the Byzantine Empire in the east.

The main coin of the Roman Empire was the silver denarius. Later denarii were smaller.

Various reasons have been given for the fall of Rome. Edward Gibbon wrote a long book called The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire in which he said it was because the Romans didn't care enough to fight hard anymore, Other historians blame the unstable system of leadership. In a 50-year period, only 2 out of 22 emperors died a natural death. Most of the emperors were assassinated.[9]

References

  1. [1]
  2. [2]
  3. Template:Cite book. Fig. 1. Regions east of the Euphrates river were held only in the years 116–117.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History (Duke University Press) 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. 
  5. Durand, John D. (1977). "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation". Population and Development Review 3 (3): 253. doi:10.2307/1971891. http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1009&context=psc_penn_papers. 
  6. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. http://peterturchin.com/PDF/Turchin_Adams_Hall_2006.pdf. Retrieved 6 February 2016. 
  7. Template:Cite book
  8. Template:Cite book
  9. Template:Cite book
  1. Between 1204 and 1261 there was an interregnum when the Empire was divided into the Empire of Nicaea, the Empire ofTrebizond and the Despotate of Epirus, which were all contenders for rule of the Empire. The Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Roman Empire because it managed to re-take Constantinople.
  2. Abbreviated "HS". Prices and values are usually expressed in sesterces; see #Currency and banking for currency denominations by period.
  3. The final emperor to rule over all of the Roman Empire's territories before its conversion to a diarchy.
  4. Officially the final emperor of the Western empire.
  5. Final ruler to be universally recognized as Roman Emperor, including by the papacy and the Western European powers.
  6. Last emperor of the Eastern (Byzantine) empire.
  7. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data/iana scripts' not found., Template:IPA-la; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data/iana scripts' not found.

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