Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
|Philippe of France|
|File:Portrait painting of Philippe of France, Duke of Orléans holding a crown of a child of France (Pierre Mignard, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux).jpg|
|Duke of Orléans|
|Tenure||10 May 1661 – 9 June 1701|
Saint Germain en Laye, France
|Died||9 June 1701 (aged 60)|
Château de Saint Cloud, France
|Burial||21 June 1701|
Royal Basilica, Saint Denis, France
|Spouse||Princess Henrietta of England|
Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
|Marie Louise, Queen of Spain|
Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia
Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine
|House||House of Orléans (founder)|
House of Bourbon (descended from)
|Father||Louis XIII of France|
|Mother||Anne of Austria|
|Signature||Philippe of France's signature|
Philippe of France, Son of France, Duke of Orléans (21 September 1640 – 9 June 1701) was the youngest son of Louis XIII of France and his queen consort Anne of Austria. His older brother was the famous Louis XIV, le roi soleil. He was known as Monsieur at his brother's court.
Philippe de France was born at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Styled Duke of Anjou from birth, Philippe became Duke of Orléans upon the death of his uncle Gaston, Duke of Orléans. During the reign of his brother he was known simply as Monsieur. Openly homosexual, he married twice: firstly to Henrietta of England, Minette, sister of Charles II of England. During their marriage, Philippe met and began a relationship with the Chevalier de Lorraine who was the great love of Philippe's life, their long relationship beginning in 1668. After the alleged poisoning of Minette, Philippe married again in 1671 to Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, Liselotte.
He was the founder of the House of Orléans, a cadet branch of the ruling House of Bourbon, and thus the direct ancestor of Louis Philippe I, who ruled France from 1830 till 1848 in the July Monarchy. Through the children of both of his marriages Philippe became an ancestor of most modern-day Roman Catholic royals, giving him the nickname of "the grandfather of Europe". Philippe's other legacies include his decisive victory at the Battle of Cassel in 1677. Through careful personal administration, Philippe greatly augmented his fortune and thus the fortune of the House of Orléans.
- Marie Louise d'Orléans (26 March 1662 – 12 February 1689) married Charles II of Spain, no children;
- Philippe Charles d'Orléans, Duke of Valois (16 July 1664 – 8 December 1666) died in infancy;
- Stillborn daughter (9 July 1665);
- Anne Marie d'Orléans (27 August 1669 – 26 August 1728) married Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and had children;
- Alexandre Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Valois (2 June 1673 – 16 March 1676) died in infancy;
- Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans, Regent of France (2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723) married Françoise Marie de Bourbon, Légitimée de France and had children;
- Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (13 September 1676 – 24 December 1744) married Léopold of Lorraine, Duke of Lorraine and had children.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 21 September 1640 – 14 May 1643 His Royal Highness The Duke of Anjou, Son of France.
- 14 May 1643 – 2 February 1660 His Royal Highness Monsieur, Duke of Anjou, Son of France.
- 2 February 1660 – 9 June 1701 His Royal Highness Monsieur, Duke of Orléans, Son of France.