Philip, Duke of Parma
|File:Felipe de Parma1.png|
|Duke of Parma|
|Reign||18 October 1748–18 July 1765|
Royal Alcazar, Madrid, Spain
|Died||18 July 1765 (aged 45)|
|Spouse||Louise Élisabeth of France|
|Issue||Isabella, Archduchess of Austria |
Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain
|House||House of Bourbon|
|Father||Philip V of Spain|
Infante of Spain
Born at the Royal Alcazar in Madrid, he was the fourth child and third son of Philip V of Spain and his wife, Elisabeth Farnese. He was raised in Madrid and as a child showed more interest in art than in politics. He was created Count of Chinchón, which he later ceded to his brother Louis in 1754.
Duke of Parma
His mother was the last of the Farnese, rulers the Duchy of Parma. The Duchy had been ruled between 1731 and 1736 by his elder brother Charles I, but exchanged with Austria for The Two Sicilies after the War of Polish Succession. Twelve years later, in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Austria lost Parma, and Philip became the new Duke, founding the Bourbons of Parma.
As part of the Treaty of Versailles (1757) between Austria and France it was intended that Philip would become King of the Southern Netherlands, in a deal that would see French troops occupy key positions in the country – however this arrangement was repudiated by the subsequent Third Treaty of Versailles and Philip continued in Parma.
Parma was ruined by many years of warfare, and in 1759 Philip named the abled Frenchmen Guillaume du Tillot as his minister to restore the economy. He stimulated education and philosophy, attracting personalities like Étienne Bonnot de Condillac.
Philip died unexpectedly on 18 July 1765 in Alessandria, Italy, after having accompanied his daughter Maria Luisa on her way to Genoa, where she sailed for Spain to marry Infante Charles. Through Philip's daughter Maria Luisa, he is an ancestor of the Bourbons of Spain, the Bourbons of the Two Sicilies, and the House of Orléans.
Philip married Louise Élisabeth of France in Alcalá de Henares, Spain on 25 October 1739. She was the eldest daughter of Louis XV. They had three children. The marriage was the first between the French and Spanish Bourbons, the other taking place in 1745 between Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain.
- Isabella of Parma (31 December 1741 – 27 November 1763) married Archduke Joseph of Austria and had issue.
- Ferdinand, Duke of Parma (20 January 1751 – 9 October 1802) married Maria Amalia of Austria and had issue.
- Maria Luisa of Parma (9 December 1751 – 2 January 1819) married her cousin, the Charles IV of Spain and had issue.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 15 March 1720 – 18 October 1748 His Royal Highness The Infante Don Felipe of Spain.
- 18 October 1748 – 18 July 1765 His Royal Highness The Duke of Parma, Infante of Spain.