Pacific Ring of Fire

File:Pacific Ring of Fire.png
The pacific ring of fire

The Pacific Ring of Fire is an arc around the Pacific Ocean where many volcanoes and earthquakes are formed.[1] The area is also called the Pacific Rim, a term which refers to the coastal areas of the countries round the Pacific.[2]

About three quarters of the world's dormant volcanos and active volcanos are here. The ring is 40,000km long, and there are 452 volcanoes.[3]

About 90%[4] of the world's earthquakes and 81%[5] of the world's largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17%[5] of the world's largest earthquakes) is the Alpide belt, which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.[6][7]

The Ring of Fire is a direct result of plate tectonics and the movement and collisions of crustal plates.[8]



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  2. Linda, Wojtan (1987). "Teaching about the Pacific Rim. ERIC Digest No. 43". ERIC DIGEST. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  3. "Ring of Fire - Pacific Ring of Fire". 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2010-11-01.
  4. "Earthquake Glossary". Retrieved 2017-11-01.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Earthquake Facts & Earthquake Fantasy". Retrieved 2017-11-01.
  6. U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes FAQ.
  7. U.S. Geological Survey Earthquakes Visual Glossary.
  8. Moving slabs [This dynamic Earth, USGS].
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 United States Geologic Survey (USGS), "Decade Volcanoes". Retrieved 2012-6-15.
  10. Costa Rica National Parks, "Irazu Volcano National Park". Retrieved 2012-6-15.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 USGS, "Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions Since 1500 A.D.". Retrieved 2012-6-15. Archived 28 March 2012 at WebCite
  12. Malahoff, Alexander. "Loihi Submarine Volcano: A unique, natural extremophile laboratory," National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), December 18, 2000. Retrieved 2012-6-15. Archived 9 April 2012 at WebCite
  13. USGS, "Mount Baker—Living with an Active Volcano," May 25, 2005. Retrieved 2012-6-15. Archived 7 May 2011 at WebCite
  14. Geological Survey of Japan, "Active Volcanoes in Japan". Retrieved 2012-6-14.
  15. USGS, "Mount Hood—History and Hazards of Oregon's Most Recently Active Volcano," May 27, 2010. Retrieved 2012-6-15.
  16. "Villagers flee biggest Mt Merapi eruption yet," The Guardian (UK). June 8, 2006. Retrieved 2012-6-15.
  17. US National Park Service (NPS), "Mount Rainier". Retrieved 2012-6-15.
  18. 18.0 18.1 UNESCO, "Hawaii Volcanoes National Park". Retrieved 2012-6-14.
  19. Global Volcanism Program (GVP), "Sakura-jima". Retrieved 2012-6-15.
  20. McGuire, Bill. "In the shadow of the volcano," The Guardian,15 October 2003. Retrieved 2012-6-15.