Names of God in Judaism
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In Judaism, God is known by many names. The most important of these names is the Tetragrammaton, or "Four-lettered word": YHVH, YHWH, or י - ה וה. Jews are not allowed to say this name, and instead say Adonai. Even Adonai is only used by some Jews in prayer. Most Jews would refer to God as Hashem, or "The Name". Jews are not allowed to erase the Tetragrammaton, so they rarely write it down outside of their most holy books, such as the Torah.
Other names include Elohim, El, Shaddai, Tzeva-ot, ‘Elyon, and Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh which are respectively pronounced by observant Jews as Elokim, Kayl, Shakkai, Tzeva-Kot.
Certain names, such as Shalom, are pronounced as written, but when written one letter, in this case the last letter, is omitted. The last of the above "other" list is often said as Ek-yeh Asher Ek-yeh.
Other Jewish names of (or references) to God include
- Emet (Truth)
- Tzur Yisrael (The Rock of Israel)
- Elohei Avraham, Elohei Yitzchak, v'Elohei Yaacov (God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob)
- Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh (I Am That I Am)
- Avinu Malkeinu (Our Father, our King)
- Ro'eh Yisrael (Shepherd of Israel)
- Ha-Kadosh, Baruch Hu (The Holy One, Blessed be He)
- Melech ha-Melachim (The King of Kings)
- Makom (literally, "the place"; meaning "The Omnipresent")
- Magen Avraham (Shield of Abraham)
- Shalom: of Peace
- YHWH-Jireh: The Lord will provide (Genesis 22:13, 14).
- YHWH-Rapha: The Lord that healeth (Exodus 15:26).
- YHWH-Nissi: The Lord our Banner (Exodus 17:8-15).
- YHWH-Shalom: The Lord our Peace (Judges 6:24).
- YHWH-Ra-ah: The Lord my Shepherd (Psalms 23:1).
- YHWH-Tsidkenu: The Lord our Righteousness (Book of Jeremiah 23:6).
- YHWH-Shammah: The Lord is present (Book of Ezekiel 48:35).