Mount Everest

Mount Everest
File:Everest kalapatthar.jpg
Mount Everest as viewed from Kalapatthar.
Highest point
Elevation[1]
Ranked 1st
Prominence
Ranked 1st
(Notice special definition for Everest)
ListingSeven Summits
Eight-thousander
Country high point
Ultra
CoordinatesLua error: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.[2]
Naming
Native nameLua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data/iana scripts' not found.
Geography
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LocationSolukhumbu District, Province No. 1, Nepal;[3]
Tingri County, Xigazê, Tibet Autonomous Region, China[4]
CountriesNepal and China
Parent rangeMahalangur Himal, Himalayas
Climbing
First ascent29 May 1953
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay
(First winter ascent 17 February 1980 Krzysztof Wielicki, Leszek Cichy)
Normal routesoutheast ridge (Nepal)
Template:Wikidata image

Mount Everest (Tibetian: Chomolungma; Nepali: Sagarmāthā) is the largest[source?] and highest mountain on Earth. Mount Everest is in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world. It is about 8,848.00 metres (29,028.87 ft) high.[5]

Its peak is on the border of Nepal and China. It is above the Death Zone where the air is too thin for a human being to live, so usually compressed gas tanks with different gas mixes for different altitudes are used when climbing. The Death Zone refers to the parts of Mount Everest that are above 7,600 metres (24,900 ft) above sea level.

Two other mountains also can be named as the "highest" mountains - the Hawaiian volcano Mauna Loa on Hawaii island is the highest mountain measured from the base underwater to the summit (more than 11 kilometres), and the summit of Mount Chimborazo is the fixed point on Earth which is the greatest distance from the center. This is because of the shape of the Earth: the circumference around the Equator is greater than around the poles.

Everest Base Camp

"Everest Base Camp" is used to mean the two base camps on opposite sides of Mount Everest. South Base Camp is in Nepal at an altitude of 5,364 metres (17,598 ft) (Lua error: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.). North Base Camp is in Tibet at 5,150.00 meters (16,896.33 ft)[6][7][8] (Lua error: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.). These camps are simple campsite shelters at the bottom (or base) of the mountain. They are used by mountain climbers during their journey up or down the mountain. Supplies are provided there and climbers rest, heal and make trip preparations.

South Base Camp is used when climbing up the southeast ridge. North Base Camp is used when climbing up the northeast ridge.[9]

Supplies are shipped to the South Base Camp by Sherpas or porters, and with the help of animals, usually yaks. The North Base Camp has vehicle access (at least in the summer months). Climbers usually rest at base camp for several days for their bodies to get used to the thin air of high altitudes.

This reduces the risks and severity of altitude sickness.

File:Short Rest on Everest Base Trail.jpg
Short Rest on Everest Base Trail

Climate

Mount Everest has a "snowy and frigid" climate. Winds can speed up to 177 mph (285 km/h). The coldest month is January with a high of −74 °F (−59 °C) and the warmest month in mount everest is July with a high of −10 °F (−23 °C). Because of climate change, the glaciers around Mount Everest may disappear over the next few decades.[10]

Climate data for Mount Everest
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

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Source: [11]

History

A survey of India in 1856 recorded Everest. It was called Peak XV. This first published height was 8,840 m (29,000 ft). Everest was given its official English name in 1865 by the Royal Geographical Society.

British people began exploring the area around Mount Everest in 1921. The first expedition to try to climb to the top of Everest was in 1922. On June 8th, 1924, George Leigh Mallory and climbing partner Andrew Irvine tried to climb to the summit of Mount Everest. They disappeared into the fog and were not seen again until Mallory's dead body was found by Conrad Anker in 1999.

The top of Mount Everest was first reached in May 1953 by the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary.

Sherpas

Sherpas are the local people who live near the foot of Mount Everest. For the Sherpas, Mount Everest is a sacred mountain and before they climb Mount Everest they always do a sacrificial offering.[12]

References

  1. Based on the 1999 and 2005 surveys of elevation of snow cap, not rock head. For more details, see Surveys.
  2. The WGS84 coordinates given here were calculated using detailed topographic mapping and are in agreement with adventurestats. They are unlikely to be in error by more than 2". Coordinates showing Everest to be more than a minute further east that appeared on this page until recently, and still appear in Wikipedia in several other languages, are incorrect.
  3. Geography of Nepal: Physical, Economic, Cultural & Regional By Netra Bahadur Thapa, D.P. Thapa Orient Longmans, 1969
  4. The position of the summit of Everest on the international border is clearly shown on detailed topographic mapping, including official Nepalese mapping.
  5. Brooks, David (2008-01-11). "Edmund Hillary, first atop Everest, dead at 88". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  6. Template:Cite book
  7. Template:Cite book
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  9. Template:Cite book
  10. "Most glaciers in Mount Everest area will disappear with climate change – study". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  11. "Monthly Average Coldest temperature on Everest Summit". topchinatravel.com/. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  12. "Geology: legends of fairies and dragons (Mountain goddess of Mount Everest)" (in German). Online Focus. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
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