Mongol invasions of Japan
- November 19, 1274 (Bun'ei 11, 20th day of the 10th month): Kublai Khan sent a fleet and an army to invade Japan. Some military forces landed near Fukuoka in Kyūshū; however, a storm sank many of the ships. The major part of the invading army is drowned. The invaders retreat to Korea. During the brief fighting, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground. This is called the Battle of Bun'ei (文永の役 Bun'ei no eki) or the "Bun'ei War".
- 1281 (Kōan 4): There was a second Mongolian attempt to invade Japan. This is called the Battle of Kōan (弘安の役 Kōan no eki) or the "Kōan War".
After the destruction of the Mongol invaders, Japan's independence was guaranteed. A power struggle within Japan led to the growth of military governments and less Imperial power.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Genkō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 238.
- Web Chronology Project, "Early Japan: 552-1281"; retrieved 2012-4-29.
- Cultural China (Shanghai News and Press Bureau), "Mongol invasions of Japan - Major Military Invasions Undertaken by Kublai Khan"; retrieved 2012-4-29.
- Davis, Paul K. (2001). 100 decisive battles: from ancient times to the present, p. 147.
- Turnbull, Stephen R. (2003). Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190–1400, p. 66.
- Nussbaum, "Bun'ei no eki" at p. 90.
- Nussbaum, "Kōan no Eki" at p. 535.
- Davis, p. 146.
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- Fukuoka/Hakata Tourist Information, "Historic spots of Genko (Mongol invasion of Japan)"
- Bowdoin, Mongol Invasions of Japan