A monarch is a person who rules because one of their relatives ruled. A male monarch can be a king or emperor. A female monarch can be called a queen or empress.

This is monarchy, a system of ruling in which ruling starts by a member of a family, and continues in that family as a dynasty. Monarchs were very common in history. Many countries used to have a monarch, but no longer have them. Some countries that still have monarchs have other leaders that actually have the power.

Monarchs tended to have monarchs of lower honour below them, e.g. a Empire could include several kingdoms, and a kingdom would have several duchies or principalities, nations would rarely include all titles, usually going from duchy to kingdom instead of duchy to principality to kingdom. Prince/Princess means 'Ruler of a Principality' and 'son of king/queen'. Some other languages have separate words for them.

Title Male Female
Empire Emperor Empress
Kingdom King Queen
Grand Principality Grand Prince Grand Princess
Principality Prince Princess
Archduchy Arch Duke Arch Duchess
Grand Duchy Grand Duke Grand Duchess
Duchy Duke Duchess
Marquisate Marquess Marchioness
County Count Countess
Viscounty Viscount Viscountess
Barony Baron Baroness

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