List of countries
This is a list of sovereign states.
|Common and formal names||Membership within the UN System[a]||Sovereignty dispute[b]||Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[d]|
|UN member states and observer states ↓↓|
|23x15px Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Albania – Republic of Albania||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Andorra – Principality of Andorra||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentAndorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell, who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
|23x15px Angola – Republic of Angola||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Antigua and Barbuda||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Argentina – Argentine Republic[g]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Armenia – Republic of Armenia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Australia – Commonwealth of Australia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Austria – Republic of Austria||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Barbados||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Belarus – Republic of Belarus||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Belize||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Benin – Republic of Benin[i]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentBosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:
|23x15px Botswana – Republic of Botswana||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Burkina Faso[j]||UN member state||None|
|Burma → Myanmar|
|23x15px Burundi – Republic of Burundi||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Canada[k]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Central African Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Chad – Republic of Chad||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Chile – Republic of Chile||UN member state||None|
|23x15px China – People's Republic of China[l]||UN member state||Partially unrecognized. Template:Claimedby
Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:
|China, Republic of → Taiwan|
|23x15px Colombia – Republic of Colombia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Comoros – Union of the Comoros||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Congo, Democratic Republic of the[p]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Congo, Republic of the[q]||UN member state||None|
|Cook IslandsCook Islands →|
|23x15px Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica||UN member state||None|
|Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast|
|23x15px Croatia – Republic of Croatia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Cuba – Republic of Cuba||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus||UN member state||Not recognized by Turkey
Template:ExtentMember of the EU.[c] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".
|23x15px Czech Republic[r]||UN member state||None|
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the|
|23x15px Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark||UN member state|| None
The continental territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom. The designation "Denmark" can refer either to continental Denmark or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Also see Greenland Treaty.
|23x15px Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Dominican Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[s]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt||UN member state||None|
|23x15px El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Eritrea – State of Eritrea||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Estonia – Republic of Estonia||UN member state||None|
|eSwatini → Swaziland|
|23x15px Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Fiji – Republic of Fiji||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Finland – Republic of Finland||UN member state||None|
|23x15px France – French Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Gabon – Gabonese Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Georgia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Germany – Federal Republic of Germany||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Ghana – Republic of Ghana||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Greece – Hellenic Republic||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentMember of the EU.[c] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.
|23x15px Grenada||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Guinea – Republic of Guinea[u]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Haiti – Republic of Haiti||UN member state||None|
|Holy See → Vatican City|
|23x15px Honduras – Republic of Honduras||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Hungary||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Iceland[v]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px India – Republic of India||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentIndia is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories. India claims the entire territory of Kashmir as one of its states, but only exercises control over part of it, while the rest is controlled by the People's Republic of China and Pakistan.
|23x15px Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Iraq – Republic of Iraq||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Ireland||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Israel – State of Israel||UN member state||Partially unrecognized
Template:ExtentIsrael exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem, an annexation not recognised by the international community. Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law.      Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) nor by the SADR.
|23x15px Italy – Italian Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Jamaica||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Japan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Kenya – Republic of Kenya||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea||UN member state||Template:Claimedby|
|23x15px Korea, South – Republic of Korea||UN member state||Template:Claimedby|
|23x15px Kuwait – State of Kuwait||UN member state||None|
|Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Latvia – Republic of Latvia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Lebanon – Lebanese Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Liberia – Republic of Liberia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Libya||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Malawi – Republic of Malawi||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Malaysia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Maldives – Republic of Maldives||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Mali – Republic of Mali||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Malta – Republic of Malta||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Mexico – United Mexican States||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Moldova – Republic of Moldova||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Monaco – Principality of Monaco||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Mongolia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Montenegro||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[x]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Namibia – Republic of Namibia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Nauru – Republic of Nauru||UN member state||None|
|File:Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Kingdom of the Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands||UN member state|| None
The continental part of the Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three other territories (Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of the continental Netherlands.
The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to the continental Netherlands or to the short name for the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.
|23x15px New Zealand||UN member state|| None
New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:
The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with Template:Numrel and Template:Numrel UN members respectively. They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN, and are members of some UN specialized agencies.
|23x15px Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Niger – Republic of Niger||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria||UN member state||None|
|Northern CyprusNorthern Cyprus →|
|North Korea → Korea, North|
|23x15px North Macedonia – Republic of North Macedonia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Norway – Kingdom of Norway||UN member state|| None
Norway has the dependent territories of:
|23x15px Oman – Sultanate of Oman||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentPakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes the entire territory of Kashmir with India, and part of it with the People's Republic of China. It exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it, instead regarding it as a disputed territory. The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[y]
Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government. These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.
|23x15px Palau – Republic of Palau||UN member state||None|
|Template:Country data State of Palestine – State of Palestine||UN observer state; member of 1 UN specialized agency|| Partially unrecognized. Template:Claimedby
Template:ExtentThe declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from Template:Numrec states. The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed. The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization. The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO, and an observer state in the UN.
|23x15px Panama – Republic of Panama||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Peru – Republic of Peru||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Philippines – Republic of the Philippines||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Poland – Republic of Poland||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Portugal – Portuguese Republic||UN member state||None|
|Pridnestrovie → Transnistria|
|23x15px Qatar – State of Qatar||UN member state||None|
|Republic of Korea → Korea, South|
|Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the|
|23x15px Romania||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Russia – Russian Federation||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentRussia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[f] Russia also forms the Union State jointly with Belarus.
|23x15px Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda||UN member state||None|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic →|
|23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Saint Lucia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Samoa – Independent State of Samoa||UN member state||None|
|23x15px San Marino – Republic of San Marino||UN member state||None|
|23x15px São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Senegal – Republic of Senegal||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Serbia – Republic of Serbia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Singapore – Republic of Singapore||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Slovakia – Slovak Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Solomon Islands||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px South Africa – Republic of South Africa||UN member state||None|
|South Korea → Korea, South|
|South OssetiaSouth Ossetia →|
|23x15px South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Spain – Kingdom of Spain||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentMember of the EU.[c] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities.[f]
|23x15px Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[z]||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Sudan – Republic of the Sudan||UN member state||None|
|South SudanSudan, South →|
|23x15px Suriname – Republic of Suriname||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Swaziland – Kingdom of Eswatini||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden||UN member state||None|
|23x16px Switzerland – Swiss Confederation||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Syria – Syrian Arab Republic||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentThe Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war. Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.
|TaiwanTaiwan (Republic of China) →|
|23x15px Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand||UN member state||None|
|The Bahamas → Bahamas, The|
|The Gambia → Gambia, The|
|Timor-Leste → East Timor|
|23x15px Togo – Togolese Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Tunisia – Tunisian Republic||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Turkey – Republic of Turkey||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Turkmenistan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Tuvalu||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Uganda – Republic of Uganda||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Ukraine||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentUkraine contains an autonomous republic, Crimea. In 2014 Russia annexed the region along with Sevastopol turning them in one of its federal subjects as Republic of Crimea and city of Sevastopol.
|23x15px United Arab Emirates||UN member state||None|
|23x15px United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentMember of the EU.[c] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[e] consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:
The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:
|23x15px United States – United States of America||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentThe United States is a federation of 50 states and 1 federal district with shared sovereignty. The Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:
It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:
It also has sovereignty over the following incorporated territories:
It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:
|23x15px Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu||UN member state||None|
|23x16px Vatican City – Vatican City State||UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA|| None
Template:ExtentAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to Template:Numrec – 180 UN member states, one UN observer state (Palestine), the Cook Islands and the Republic of China (Taiwan). The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State") and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
|23x15px Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela||UN member state|| None
Template:ExtentMember of the UNASUL.[h] Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
|23x15px Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Yemen – Republic of Yemen||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Zambia – Republic of Zambia||UN member state||None|
|23x15px Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe||UN member state||None|
|UN member states and observer states ↑↑|
|↓ Other states ↓|
|23x15px Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia||No membership||Template:Claimedby|
|Template:Country data Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh||No membership||Template:Claimedby|
|23x15px Cook Islands||UN specialized agenciesMember of eight|| None|
(See political status)
Template:ExtentA state in free association with New Zealand, Template:Numrel. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
|23x15px Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo||UN specialized agenciesMember of two||Template:Claimedby
Template:ExtentPursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999. Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has Template:Numrec and the Republic of China. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
|23x15px Niue||UN specialized agenciesMember of five|| None|
(See political status)
Template:ExtentA state in free association with New Zealand, Template:Numrel. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
|23x15px Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus||No membership|| Template:Claimedby
Template:Extent Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.
|23x15px Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||No membership||Template:Claimedby
Template:ExtentRecognised at some stage by Template:Numrec, Template:Numrec of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
|23x15px Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland||No membership||Template:Claimedby|
|23x15px South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia||No membership||Template:Claimedby
Template:ExtentA de facto independent state, recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.
|23x15px Taiwan – Republic of China[l]||Former UN member (as Republic of China, 1945–1971)
Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei"
Template:ExtentA state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[aa] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland. The ROC is recognised by Template:Numrec. All these states do not recognise the PRC either. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.
The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC.[m] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.
|23x15px Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic||No membership||Template:Claimedby|
|↑ Other states ↑|
|Legend "Membership within the UN System" column
UN Member states UN Observer states Member of a UN Specialized Agency Observer in a UN Specialized Agency No membership in the UN System
|Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
Undisputed sovereignty Sovereignty disputed
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- "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 27 October 2008.
- Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
- "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 16 July 2010. For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
- China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. Foreign Affairs. United Nations https://web.archive.org/web/20141004083335/http://www.un.int/nauru/foreignaffairs.html. Archived from the original on 4 October 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2010. Missing or empty
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
- Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India. The Outlook Group.
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- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "AJ&K History". Retrieved 6 January 2018.
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- Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- See the following on statehood criteria:
- Mendes, Errol (30 March 2010). Statehood and Palestine for the purposes of Article 12 (3) of the ICC Statute. 30 March 2010. pp. 28, 33. http://uclalawforum.com/media/background/gaza/2010-03-30_Mendes-Memo.pdf. Retrieved 17 April 2011: "...the Palestinian State also meets the traditional criteria under the Montevideo Convention..."; "...the fact that a majority of states have recognised Palestine as a State should easily fulfill the requisite state practice".
- McKinney, Kathryn M. (1994). "The Legal Effects of the Israeli-PLO Declaration ofPrinciples: Steps Toward Statehood for Palestine". Seattle University Law Review (Seattle University) 18 (93): 97. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110722063030/http://lawpublications.seattleu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1438&context=sulr&sei-redir=1#search=%22palestine+%22constitutive+theory%22+statehood%22. Retrieved 17 April 2011: "It is possible, however, to argue for Palestinian statehood based on the constitutive theory".
- McDonald, Avril (Spring 2009). "Operation Cast Lead: Drawing the Battle Lines of the Legal Dispute". Human Rights Brief (Washington College of Law, Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law) 25. https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=16+Hum.+Rts.+Br.+25&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=74ccae52ba220673512e7784449388f0. Retrieved 17 April 2011: "Whether one applies the criteria of statehood set out in the Montevideo Convention or the more widely accepted constitutive theory of statehood, Palestine might be considered a state."
- "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- "Statement from UNISFA on the recent spate of attacks in Abyei". UNmissions.org. 18 October 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- "Abyei Administration Area Changes Name". Gurtong.net. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же (in Russian). newsru.com. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
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- This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations. It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
- This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
- The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.
- Information is included on:
- The extent to which a state's sovereignty is recognised internationally. More information can be found at List of states with limited recognition,
- Membership in the European Union,[c] where applicable,
- Any dependencies, if applicable, which are generally not part of the territory of the sovereign state,
- federal structure of the state, where applicable. More information can be found at Federated state,
- Any autonomous areas inside the territory of the sovereign state,
- Any situations where one person is the Head of State of more than one state,
- Any governments in exile recognised by at least one state.
- Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
- For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
- The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
- The member states of the Union of South American Nations have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the UNASUL, which is an example of supranational union. The UNASUL has 12 member states.
- Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
- Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
- The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
- The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
- In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
- See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of China.
- More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
- Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
- Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
- A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". By 2017, this variant remains uncommon. Nevertheless, this term has been adopted by several companies and organisations, including Google Maps, instead of the term "Czech Republic". See Name of the Czech Republic
- The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
- Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
- Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
- While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland" and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply Iceland. One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland", but note that "republic" is not capitalized. The official title of the President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) does also not include the word republic as in some other republics. See Names for Iceland.
- Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
- The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
- Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
- Formerly known as Ceylon until 1972.
- The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).