List of African-American Medal of Honor recipients

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The Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War. It is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces. Recipients must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States. Because of the nature of this medal it is commonly presented after the recipient has been killed (posthumously).[1]

Of the 3,464 Medals of Honor received as of June 2009, 88 have been awarded to 87 different African American recipients.[2] Robert Augustus Sweeney is one of nineteen men, and the only African American, to have been awarded two Medals of Honor.[3]

A 1993 study commissioned by the Army investigated racial discrimination in the awarding of medals.[4] At the time, no Medals of Honor had been presented to black soldiers who served in World War II. After an exhaustive review of files, the study recommended that several black Distinguished Service Cross recipients be upgraded to the Medal of Honor. On January 13, 1997, President Bill Clinton awarded the Medal to seven African American World War II veterans; of these, only Vernon Baker was still alive.[4]

Civil War

Twenty-five African Americans earned the Medal of Honor during the American Civil War. Included were seven sailors of the Union Navy, fifteen soldiers of the United States Colored Troops, and three soldiers of other Army units.[2] Fourteen African American men earned the Medal for actions in the Battle of Chaffin's Farm, where a division of U.S. Colored Troops saw heavy action. Another four men, all sailors, earned their Medals at the Battle of Mobile Bay. William Harvey Carney was the first African American to perform an action for which a Medal of Honor was awarded, but Robert Blake was the first to actually receive the Medal (Blake's was issued in 1864, Carney did not receive his until 1900). It was common for Civil War Medals of Honor to be awarded decades after the conflict ended; in one case, Andrew Jackson Smith's Medal was not awarded until 2001, 137 years after the action in which he earned it. Smith's wait, caused by a missing battle report, is the longest delay of the award for any recipient, African American or otherwise.[5]

  This along with   indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied from the official Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Aaron Anderson</span> Navy E-01Landsman [[USS Wyandank (1847)|USS Wyandank (1847)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Mattox Creek, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Participating with a boat crew in the clearing of Mattox Creek, L/man Anderson carried out his duties courageously in the face of a devastating fire which cut away half the oars, pierced the launch in many places and cut the barrel off a musket being fired at the enemy."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Bruce Anderson</span> Army E-01Private 142nd New York Volunteer Infantry Second Battle of Fort Fisher, North Carolina Script error: No such module "Dts". "Voluntarily advanced with the head of the column and cut down the palisading."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William H. Barnes</span> Army E-01Private 38th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Among the first to enter the enemy's works; although wounded."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Powhatan Beaty</span> Army E-08First Sergeant 5th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Took command of his company, all the officers having been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Robert Blake</span> Navy 0Contraband[n 1] [[USS Marblehead (1861)|USS Marblehead (1861)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory off Legareville in the Stono River, Johns Island, South Carolina Script error: No such module "Dts". "[I]n an engagement with the enemy on John's Island. Serving the rifle gun, Blake, an escaped slave, carried out his duties bravely throughout the engagement which resulted in the enemy's abandonment of positions, leaving a caisson and one gun behind."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">James H. Bronson</span> Army E-08First Sergeant 5th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Took command of his company, all the officers having been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William H. Brown</span> Navy E-01Landsman Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama Script error: No such module "Dts". "[R]emained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Wilson Brown</span> Navy E-01Landsman [[USS Hartford (1858)|USS HartfordTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama Script error: No such module "Dts". "Knocked unconscious into the hold of the ship when an enemy shellburst fatally wounded a man on the ladder above him, Brown, upon regaining consciousness, promptly returned to the shell whip on the berth deck and zealously continued to perform his duties although 4 of the 6 men at this station had been either killed or wounded by the enemy's terrific fire."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William Harvey Carney</span> Army E-05Sergeant 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Battle of Fort Wagner, Morris Island, South Carolina Script error: No such module "Dts". "[G]rasped the flag, led the way to the parapet, and planted the colors thereon. When the troops fell back he brought off the flag, under a fierce fire in which he was twice severely wounded."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Decatur Dorsey</span> Army E-04Corporal 39th United States Colored Infantry Regiment Battle of the Crater, Petersburg, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Planted his colors on the Confederate works in advance of his regiment, and when the regiment was driven back to the Union works he carried the colors there and bravely rallied the men."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Christian Fleetwood</span> Army E-05Sergeant 4th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Seized the colors, after 2 color bearers had been shot down, and bore them nobly through the fight."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">James Daniel Gardner</span> Army E-01Private 36th United States Colored Infantry Regiment Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Rushed in advance of his brigade, shot a rebel officer who was on the parapet rallying his men, and then ran him through with his bayonet."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">James H. Harris</span> Army E-05Sergeant 38th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Gallantry in the assault"
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Thomas R. Hawkins</span> Army E-01Private 6th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Deep Bottom, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Rescue of regimental colors."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Alfred B. Hilton </span> Army E-05Sergeant 4th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "When the regimental color bearer fell, this soldier seized the color and carried it forward, together with the national standard, until disabled at the enemy's inner line."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Milton M. Holland</span> Army E-09Sergeant Major 5th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Took command of Company C, after all the officers had been killed or wounded, and gallantly led it."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Miles James</span> Army E-04Corporal 36th United States Colored Infantry Regiment Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Having had his arm mutilated, making immediate amputation necessary, he loaded and discharged his piece with one hand and urged his men forward; this within 30 yards of the enemy's works."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Alexander Kelly</span> Army E-08First Sergeant 6th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Gallantly seized the colors, which had fallen near the enemy's lines of abatis, raised them and rallied the men at a time of confusion and in a place of the greatest danger."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John Henry Lawson</span> Navy E-01Landsman [[USS Hartford (1858)|USS HartfordTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama Script error: No such module "Dts". Although "Wounded in the leg and thrown violently against the side of the ship when an enemy shell killed or wounded the 6-man crew as the shell whipped on the berth deck, Lawson, upon regaining his composure, promptly returned to his station and, although urged to go below for treatment, steadfastly continued his duties..."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">James Mifflin</span> Navy 0Engineer's Cook [[USS Brooklyn (1858)|USS Brooklyn (1858)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama Script error: No such module "Dts". "[R]emained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Joachim Pease</span> Navy E-01Seaman [[USS Kearsarge (1861)|USS Kearsarge (1861)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory off Cherbourg, France Script error: No such module "Dts". "Acting as loader on the No. 2 gun during this bitter engagement, Pease exhibited marked coolness and good conduct and was highly recommended by the divisional officer for gallantry under fire."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Robert Pinn</span> Army E-08First Sergeant 5th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Took command of his company after all the officers had been killed or wounded and gallantly led it in battle."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Edward Ratcliff</span> Army E-08First Sergeant 38th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Commanded and gallantly led his company after the commanding officer had been killed; was the first enlisted man to enter the enemy's works."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Andrew Jackson Smith</span> Army E-04Corporal 55th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina Script error: No such module "Dts". "Saving his regimental colors, after the color bearer was killed during al bloody charge called the Battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Charles Veale</span> Army E-01Private 4th U.S. Colored Infantry Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "Seized the national colors after 2 color bearers had been shot down close to the enemy's works, and bore them through the remainder of the battle."

Indian Wars

Eighteen African Americans earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars of the western United States.[2] Fourteen were "Buffalo Soldiers", members of the Army's first peacetime black regiments. The four Buffalo Soldier regiments, the 9th Cavalry, 10th Cavalry, 24th Infantry, and 25th Infantry, fought in campaigns throughout the west. The remaining four Medal of Honor recipients were U.S. Army Indian Scouts recruited from among the Black Seminoles, a group of Seminole Indians of African descent.

Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied in their entirety from the actual Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Thomas Boyne</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Mimbres Mountains and near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". and Script error: No such module "Dts". "Bravery in action"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Benjamin Brown</span> Army E-05Sergeant 24th Infantry Regiment Arizona Script error: No such module "Dts". "Although shot in the abdomen, in a fight between a paymaster's escort and robbers, did not leave the field until again wounded through both arms."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John Denny</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Las Animas Canyon, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". "Removed a wounded comrade, under a heavy fire, to a place of safety."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Pompey Factor</span> Army E-01Private Indian Scouts Pecos River, Texas Script error: No such module "Dts". "With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Clinton Greaves</span> Army E-04Corporal 9th Cavalry Regiment Florida Mountains, Luna County, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". "While part of a small detachment to persuade a band of renegade Apache Indians to surrender, his group was surrounded. Cpl. Greaves in the center of the savage hand-to-hand fighting, managed to shoot and bash a gap through the swarming Apaches, permitting his companions to break free."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Henry Johnson</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Milk River, Colorado Script error: No such module "Dts".Script error: No such module "Dts". "Voluntarily left fortified shelter and under heavy fire at close range made the rounds of the pits to instruct the guards, fought his way to the creek and back to bring water to the wounded."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">George Jordan</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Fort Tularosa and Carrizo Canyon, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". and Script error: No such module "Dts". For repulsing a larger force of Indians on 2 separate occasions
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Isaiah Mays</span> Army E-04Corporal 24th Infantry Regiment Cedar Springs, Arizona Script error: No such module "Dts". "Gallantry in the fight between Paymaster Wham's escort and robbers. Mays walked and crawled 2 miles to a ranch for help."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William McBryar</span> Army E-05Sergeant 10th Cavalry Regiment Salt River, north of Globe, Arizona Script error: No such module "Dts". "Distinguished himself for coolness, bravery and marksmanship while his troop was in pursuit of hostile Apache Indians."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Adam Paine</span> Army E-01Private Indian Scouts Canyon Blanco, Staked Plains, Texas (Red River War) Script error: No such module "Dts".Script error: No such module "Dts". "Rendered invaluable service to Col. R. S. Mackenzie, 4th U.S. Cavalry, during this engagement."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Isaac Payne</span> Army 0Trumpeter Indian Scouts Pecos River, Texas Script error: No such module "Dts". "With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Thomas Shaw</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Carrizo Canyon, Cuchillo Negra Mountains, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". "Forced the enemy back after stubbornly holding his ground in an extremely exposed position and prevented the enemy's superior numbers from surrounding his command."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Emanuel Stance</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Kickapoo Springs, Texas Script error: No such module "Dts". "Gallantry on scout after Indians"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Augustus Walley</span> Army E-01Private 9th Cavalry Regiment Cuchillo Negro Mountains, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". "Bravery in action with hostile Apaches"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John Ward</span> Army E-05Sergeant Indian Scouts, 24th Infantry Regiment Pecos River, Texas Script error: No such module "Dts". "With 3 other men, he participated in a charge against 25 hostiles while on a scouting patrol"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Moses Williams</span> Army E-08First Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Cuchillo Negro Mountains, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". "Rallied a detachment, skillfully conducted a running flght of 3 or 4 hours, and by his coolness, bravery, and unflinching devotion to duty in standing by his commanding officer in an exposed position under a heavy fire from a large party of Indians saved the lives of at least 3 of his comrades."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William Othello Wilson</span> Army E-04Corporal 9th Cavalry Regiment Sioux Campaign Script error: No such module "Dts". "Bravery"
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Brent Woods</span> Army E-05Sergeant 9th Cavalry Regiment Gavilan Canyon, New Mexico Script error: No such module "Dts". "Saved the lives of his comrades and citizens of the detachment"

Spanish-American War

Six African Americans earned the Medal of Honor during the Spanish-American War: five Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry Regiment and one United States Navy sailor.[2] Four of the five Buffalo Soldiers received the Medal for rescuing a trapped landing party during the Battle of Tayacoba.

Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied in their entirety from the actual Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Edward L. Baker, Jr.</span> Army E-09Sergeant Major 10th Cavalry Regiment Santiago, Cuba Script error: No such module "Dts". "Left cover and, under fire, rescued a wounded comrade from drowning."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Dennis Bell</span> Army E-01Private 10th Cavalry Regiment Tayabacoa, Cuba Script error: No such module "Dts". "Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Fitz Lee</span> Army E-01Private 10th Cavalry Regiment Tayabacoa, Cuba Script error: No such module "Dts". "Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts had been frustrated."
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Robert Penn</span> Navy Fireman First Class [[USS Iowa (BB-4)|USS Iowa (BB-4)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory On board the U.S.S. Iowa off Santiago de Cuba Script error: No such module "Dts". "Performing his duty at the risk of serious scalding at the time of the blowing out of the manhole gasket on board the vessel, Penn hauled the fire while standing on a board thrown across a coal bucket 1 foot above the boiling water which was still blowing from the boiler."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William H. Thompkins</span> Army E-01Private 10th Cavalry Regiment Tayabacoa, Cuba Script error: No such module "Dts". "Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">George H. Wanton</span> Army E-01Private 10th Cavalry Regiment Tayabacoa, Cuba Script error: No such module "Dts". "Voluntarily went ashore in the face of the enemy and aided in the rescue of his wounded comrades; this after several previous attempts at rescue had been frustrated."

World War I

Freddie Stowers was the only African American to receive the Medal of Honor for actions in World War I.[2] Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being twice wounded. Stowers died of his wounds, and was shortly afterwards recommended for the Medal of Honor; however, this recommendation was never processed. In 1990, the Department of the Army conducted a review and the Stowers recommendation was uncovered. An investigation was launched, and based on results of the investigation the award of the Medal of Honor was approved. Stowers' Medal of Honor was presented on April 24, 1991—seventy-three years after he was killed-in-action.

  This along with   indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Freddie Stowers </span> Army E-04Corporal 371st Infantry Regiment, 93d Division Hill 188, Champagne Marne Sector, France Script error: No such module "Dts". Led his squad to destroy a group of enemy soldiers and was leading them to another trench when he was killed

World War II

No African American was awarded a Medal of Honor either during World War II or immediately afterwards with respect to their actions during that conflict. This changed in 1992 when a study conducted by Shaw University and commissioned by the U.S. Dept. of Defense and the United States Army asserted that systematic racial discrimination had been present in the criteria for awarding medals during the war. After an exhaustive review of files the study recommended that several of the Distinguished Service Crosses awarded to African Americans be upgraded to the Medal of Honor. On January 13, 1997, more than fifty years after the end of the war, President Bill Clinton awarded the Medal to seven African American World War II veterans. Vernon Baker was the only living recipient—the other six men had been killed in action or died in the intervening years.

  This along with   indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

:Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied in their entirety from the actual Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Vernon Baker</span> Army O-01Second Lieutenant 370th Infantry Regiment, 92d Infantry Division (Colored) near Viareggio, Italy Script error: No such module "Dts". and Script error: No such module "Dts". Risked his life numerous times to destroy enemy installations, personnel and equipment during his company's attack against a strongly entrenched enemy. He covered the evacuation of the wounded personnel of his company by occupying an exposed position and drawing the enemy's fire. On the following night he voluntarily led a battalion advance through enemy mine fields and heavy fire toward the division objective.
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Edward A. Carter, Jr. </span> Army E-06Staff Sergeant 12th Armored Division near Speyer, Germany Script error: No such module "Dts". When the tank he was riding received heavy bazooka and small arms fire, he voluntarily attempted to lead a three-man group across an open field. Two of his men were killed and the third seriously wounded. Continuing on alone, he was wounded five times and finally was forced to take cover. As eight enemy riflemen attempted to capture him he killed six of them and captured the remaining two. He then crossed the field, using as a shield his two prisoners from whom he obtained valuable information concerning the disposition of enemy troops.
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John R. Fox </span> Army O-02First Lieutenant 366th Infantry Regiment, 92nd Infantry Division (Colored) the vicinity of Sommocolonia, Italy Script error: No such module "Dts". "[V]oluntarily remained on the second floor of a house to direct defensive artillery fire" so his unit could escape. "when a counterattack retook the position from the Germans, Lieutenant Fox's body was found with the bodies of approximately 100 German soldiers."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Willy F. James, Jr. </span> Army E-02Private First Class 413th Infantry Regiment, 104th Infantry Division near Lippoldsberg, Germany Script error: No such module "Dts". "[L]ed a squad in the assault, accurately designating targets as he advanced, until he was killed by enemy machine gun fire while going to the aid of his fatally wounded platoon leader."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Ruben Rivers </span> Army E-06Staff Sergeant 761st Tank Battalion (Colored), 26th Infantry Division (United States) Guebling, France Script error: No such module "Dts".Script error: No such module "Dts". For extraordinary heroism in action during the 15–19 November 1944, toward Guebling, France. Though severely wounded in the leg, Sergeant Rivers refused medical treatment and evacuation, took command of another tank, and advanced with his company in Guebling the next day. Repeatedly refusing evacuation, Sergeant Rivers continued to direct his tank's fire at enemy positions through the morning of 19 November 1944. At dawn, Company A's tanks began to advance towards Bougaktroff, but were stopped by enemy fire. Sergeant Rivers, joined by another tank, opened fire on the enemy tanks, covering company A as they withdrew. While doing so, Sergeant River's tank was hit, killing him and wounding the crew. Staff Sergeant Rivers' fighting spirit and daring leadership were an inspiration to his unit and exemplify the highest traditions of military service.
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Charles L. Thomas </span> Army O-02First Lieutenant 614th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 103rd Infantry Division near Climbach, France Script error: No such module "Dts". Risked his life to rescue fellow soldiers from enemy fire when their vehicle was attacked. Continued helping although receiving multiple gunshot wounds to his chest, legs, and left arm. Despite the intense pain caused by these wounds, he ordered and directed the setup of two antitank guns which promptly and effectively returned fire against the enemy. Realizing that he could no longer remain in command of the platoon, he signalled to the platoon commander to join him. Only after he was certain that his junior officer was in full control of the situation did he permit himself to be evacuated.
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey"."> George Watson  </span> Army E-01Private 2nd Battalion, 29th Quartermaster Regiment, Quartermaster Corps Unknown Script error: No such module "Dts". When his ship was hit by enemy bombers he sacrificed himself to save several other crewmembers who could not swim and drowned when the suction of the ship sinking pulled him under

Korean War

Two African Americans received the Medal of Honor for action in the Korean War, both were soldiers of the 24th Infantry Regiment.[2] Despite a 1948 Executive Order commanding the integration of the military, segregated units persisted until 1954; the 24th Infantry was one of the last remaining all-black regiments, and these two men were the last African Americans to receive the Medal of Honor for actions while serving in a segregated unit.

  This along with   indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Cornelius H. Charlton </span> Army E-05Sergeant 24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division Near Chipo-ri, Korea Script error: No such module "Dts". Using grenades and machine-gun fire he led his men to fight back a group of enemy soldiers until he was killed
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William Henry Thompson </span> Army E-02Private First Class 24th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division Near Haman, Korea Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life to allow the rest of his unit to escape a group of enemy soldiers

Vietnam War

Twenty African Americans were awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in the Vietnam War, including James Anderson, Jr., the first African American Marine to receive the Medal.[2]

  This along with   indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

:Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied in their entirety from the actual Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">James Anderson, Jr. </span> Marine Corps E-02Private First Class 3rd Marine Regiment, 3rd Marine Division Cam Lo, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Webster Anderson</span> Army E-06Staff Sergeant 320th Field Artillery Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) Tam Kỳ, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Anderson's artillery unit was attacked by North Vietnamese forces near Tam Kỳ in the Republic of Vietnam. Anderson directed the defense of the unit's position and continued to lead after twice being severely wounded.
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Eugene Ashley, Jr. </span> Army E-07Sergeant First Class 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne), 1st Special Forces Battle of Lang Vei, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts".Script error: No such module "Dts". Led 5 assaults against the enemy, continuously exposing himself to enemy grenades, machine gun and automatic weapons fire until he was killed by enemy mortar fire after being carried off the battlefield
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Oscar P. Austin </span> Marine Corps E-02Private First Class 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division (Reinforced) Da Nang, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life to save a wounded Marine
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William Maud Bryant </span> Army E-07Sergeant First Class 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces Long Khanh Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Killed by an enemy rocket after leading his men on repeated attacks upon enemy bunkers
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Rodney M. Davis </span> Marine Corps E-05Sergeant 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division Quang Nam Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Robert H. Jenkins, Jr. </span> Marine Corps E-02Private First Class 3rd Marine Division (Reinforced) Fire Support Base Argonne, DMZ, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life to shield a wounded Marine from an exploding grenade
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Lawrence Joel</span> Army E-04Specialist Six 503d Infantry Regiment, 173d Airborne Brigade Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". After a long battle with enemy soldiers and despite his own wounds he continued to treat wounded until he was ordered to evacuate
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Dwight H. Johnson</span> Army E-04Specialist Five 69th Armor Regiment, 4th Infantry Division Dak To, Kon Tum Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Risked his life to repeatedly attack a group of enemy soldiers until all of the enemy had been repulsed or killed
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Ralph H. Johnson </span> Marine Corps E-02Private First Class 1st Marine Division (Reinforced) Hill 146, Quan Duc Valley, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Garfield M. Langhorn </span> Army E-02Private First Class 17th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Aviation Brigade Plei Djereng, Pleiku Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Matthew Leonard </span> Army E-07Sergeant First Class 16th Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division Suoi Da, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Although severely wounded he continued to fight the enemy until succombing to his wounds
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Donald Russell Long </span> Army E-05Sergeant 4th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Milton L. Olive, III </span> Army E-02Private First Class 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade Phu Cuong, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Riley L. Pitts </span> Army O-03Captain 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division Ap Dong, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Led his men against numerous attacks against the enemy until they had been defeated
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Charles Calvin Rogers</span> Army O-05Lieutenant Colonel 5th Field Artillery Regiment, 1st Infantry Division Fishook region (near the Cambodian border), Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". "Although too severely wounded to physically lead the defenders, Lt. Col. Rogers continued to give encouragement and direction to his men in the defeating and repelling of the enemy attack"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Ruppert L. Sargent </span> Army O-02First Lieutenant 9th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division Hau Nghia Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering two enemy grenades with his body
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Clarence Sasser</span> Army E-02Private First Class 60th Infantry Regiment, 9th Infantry Division Ding Tuong Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Although wounded himself he proceeded to administer first aid to the wounded for more than five hours until they were evacuated
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Clifford Chester Sims </span> Army E-06Staff Sergeant 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division Huế, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Sacrificed his life by smothering a grenade with his body
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John E. Warren, Jr. </span> Army O-02First Lieutenant 22d Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division Tay Ninh Province, Vietnam Script error: No such module "Dts". Treated the wounded and administered last rites to the dead and dying until he was killed by the enemy

Peacetime

Before World War II, the Medal of Honor could be awarded for actions not involving direct combat with the enemy; eight African Americans earned the Medal in this way, all of them sailors.[2] Robert Augustus Sweeney received two peacetime Medals of Honor, one of only nineteen men, and the only African American, to be awarded the medal twice. Most of the non-combat medals, including both of Sweeney's, were awarded for rescuing or attempting to rescue someone from drowning.

  This along with   indicates that the Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously

:Note: Notes in quotations are derived or are copied in their entirety from the actual Medal of Honor citation
Image Name Service Rank Unit Place of action Date of action Notes
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Daniel Atkins</span> Navy Ship's Cook First Class [[USS Cushing (TB-1)|USS Cushing (TB-1)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory aboard ship at sea Script error: No such module "Dts". Attempted to save the life of an officer who fell overboard at sea
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John Davis</span> Navy E-01Ordinary Seaman [[USS Trenton (1876)|USS Trenton (1876)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Toulon, France Script error: No such module "Dts". "Jumping overboard, Davis rescued Augustus Ohlensen, coxswain, from drowning"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Alphonse Girandy</span> Navy E-01Seaman [[USS Petrel (PG-2)|USS Petrel (PG-2)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory aboard ship at sea Script error: No such module "Dts". "[F]earlessly exposing his own life to danger for the saving of others"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John Johnson</span> Navy E-01Seaman [[USS Kansas (1863)|USS Kansas (1863)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory near Greytown, Nicaragua Script error: No such module "Dts". "[D]isplayed great coolness and self-possession at the time Comdr. A. F. Crosman and others were drowned and, by extraordinary heroism and personal exertion, prevented greater loss of life."
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">William Johnson</span> Navy Cooper [[USS Adams (1874)|USS Adams (1874)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Navy Yard, Mare Island, California Script error: No such module "Dts". "[R]escued Daniel W. Kloppen, a workman, from drowning"
75px <span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Joseph B. Noil</span> Navy E-01Seaman [[USS Powhatan (1850)|USS Powhatan (1850)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Norfolk, Virginia Script error: No such module "Dts". "[S]aved Boatswain J. C. Walton from drowning"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">John Smith</span> Navy E-01Seaman [[USS Shenandoah (1862)|USS Shenandoah (1862)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Script error: No such module "Dts". "[R]escuing from drowning James Grady, first class fireman"
<span data-sort-value="Script error: No such module "sortkey".">Robert Augustus Sweeney</span> Navy E-01Ordinary Seaman First action:
[[USS Kearsarge (1861)|USS Kearsarge (1861)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory
Second action:
[[USS Jamestown (1844)|USS Jamestown (1844)Template:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory
First action:
Hampton Roads, Virginia
Second action:
Brooklyn Navy Yard
First action:
Script error: No such module "Dts".
Second action:
Script error: No such module "Dts".
First action:"[J]umped overboard and assisted in saving from drowning a shipmate who had fallen overboard into a strongly running tide"
Second action:"[R]escued from drowning A. A. George, who had fallen overboard from that vessel"

Footnotes

  1. "In international law, contraband is any goods carried by vessels of neutral nations during wartime that may be confiscated and thus prohibited from delivery to the enemy. Since slavery was still in active practice in the southern United States (the Confederate States of America) during the American Civil War when Blake was captured, he was considered someone's property and therefore considered to be contraband.”

References

12px This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
General
  • Template:Cite book
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". American Civil War (A–L) War Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". American Civil War (M–Z) War Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Indian Wars Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Peacetime (1871–1898) Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Spanish–American War Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Peacetime (1901–1911) Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". World War I War Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". World War II African American Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Korean War Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Vietnam War (A–L) Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  • "Medal of Honor recipients". Vietnam War (M–Z) Medal of Honor recipients. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
Inline
  1. "A Brief History — The Medal of Honor". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). Department of Defense. August 8, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 C. W. Hanna, African American recipients of the Medal of Honor, 3; Note: Hanna includes Clement Dees in his count, while this list does not, because Dees's medal was rescinded.
  3. "List of Double MOH Recipients". Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "WWII African American MOH recipients". United States Army Center of Military History. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  5. Template:Cite book

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