John J. Pershing
|John Joseph Pershing|
|Died||July 15, 1948 (aged 87)|
Walter Reed General Hospital
|Buried at||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Years of service||1886–1924|
|Rank||30px General of the Armies|
|Commands held||8th Brigade|
American Expeditionary Force
First United States Army
Army Chief of Staff
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross|
Distinguished Service Medal
Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
General of the Armies John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948), was a general officer in the United States Army. He led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army. The rank is known as General of the Armies. (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority). Pershing holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). He was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II. These include George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton.
Summary of service
Dates of rank
|No Insignia in 1886||Second Lieutenant, United States Army: July 1, 1886|
|First Lieutenant, United States Army: October 20, 1892|
|Major of Volunteers, U.S. Army: August 18, 1898 - June 30, 1901|
|Captain, U.S. Army (reverted to permanent rank July 1, 1901): February 2, 1901|
|Brigadier General, United States Army: September 1906|
|Major General, United States Army: May 1916|
|General, National Army, Army of the United States: October 1917|
| General of the Armies of the United States, Army of the United States: September 3, 1919|
As there was no prescribed insignia for this rank, General Pershing chose the four stars of a full general, except in gold. The rank has been argued to be equivalent to "6-star" general, as the insignia of the next lowest rank "General of the Army" is designated by five stars. According to the biography Until the Last Trumpet Sounds by Gene Smith, Pershing never wore the rank on his uniform.
- 1882: Cadet, United States Military Academy
- 1886: Troop L, Sixth Cavalry
- 1891: Professor of Tactics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
- 1895: 1st Lieutenant, 10th Cavalry Regiment
- 1897: Instructor, United States Military Academy, West Point
- 1898: Major of Volunteer Forces, Cuban Campaign, Spanish–American War
- 1899: Officer-in-Charge, Office of Customs and Insular Affairs
- 1900: Adjutant General, Department of Mindanao and Jolo, Philippines
- 1901: Battalion Officer, 1st Cavalry and Intelligence Officer, 15th Cavalry (Philippines)
- 1902: Officer-in-Charge, Camp Vicars, Philippines
- 1904: Assistant Chief of Staff, Southwest Army Division, Oklahoma
- 1905: Military attaché, U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, Japan
- 1908: Military Advisor to American Embassy, France
- 1909: Commander of Fort McKinley, Manila, and governor of Moro Province
- 1914: Brigade Commander, 8th Army Brigade
- 1916: Commanding General, Mexican Punitive Expedition
- 1917: Commanding General for the formation of the National Army
- 1917: Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces, Europe
- 1921: Chief of Staff of the United States Army
- 1924: Retired from active military service
- 1925: Chief Commissioner assigned by the United States in the arbitration case for the provinces of Tacna and Arica between Peru and Chile.
- 12px This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.
- Further reading
- Richard Goldhurst, Pipe Clay and Drill: John J. Pershing, the classic American soldier, (Reader's Digest Press, 1977)
- Gene Smith, Until the Last Trumpet Sounds: The Life of General of the Armies John J. Pershing (Wiley, New York, 1998) Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".
- Donald Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John J. Pershing (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973) Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".
- Donald Smythe, Pershing: General of the Armies (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1986) Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".
- Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing - Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".
- Frank E. Vandiver, Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing - Volume II (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) Template:Catalog lookup linkScript error: No such module "check isxn".
- Template:Cite book
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to John J. Pershing.|
|40x40px||Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
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- Pershing Museum
- Biography of John J. Pershing
- New York Times obituary
- Black Jack Pershing in Cuba
- CHAPTER IV, General of the Armies John J. Pershing, State Funeral, 15-19 July 1948 in The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921-1969 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark, United States Army Center of Military History