This article needs to be updated. (March 2015)
Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data/iana scripts' not found.; born 4 May 1928), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Language/data/iana scripts' not found.), is a former President of Egypt. He was in that position from 14 October 1981 to 11 February 2011.
Mubarak became the Vice-President of the Republic of Egypt after moving up the ranks of the Egyptian Air Force. Then he became the President after President Anwar Sadat was assassinated on 6 October 1981. His almost thirty-year presidency made him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha.
As President of Egypt, Mubarak is thought to have been one of the most powerful leaders in the region. Under the 1971 Constitution of Egypt, Mubarak exercised strong control over the country and was generally considered a dictator. In 2005, he called an election and easily won it. Many opponents believed Mubarak changed the election results so he could win.
In early 2011, during the Arab Spring, there were huge protests against his government. In the end, Mubarak resigned and handed over power to the armed forces. It is hoped that elections later that year for a new government. On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was sentenced to life imprisonment for ordering the shooting of protesters in the revolution that ousted him.
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- Samer al-Atrush (1 July 2012). "Morsi sworn in as Egypt president". Herald Sun. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Yasmine Saleh and Shaimaa Fayed (24 June 2012). "Islamist Morsy wins Egyptian presidency with 52 pct". Reuters Africa. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- Slackman, Michael (8 March 2010). "Hosni Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 January 2011.