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Patrolled pages are a feature which allows specific users to mark pages in as having been "patrolled" or "approved". In the Simple English Wikipedia this is only available to you if you are an administrator or patroller.
This feature is useful when reviewing new pages for undesirable pages. This allows people (those who can see it) to coordinate their patrolling activity, such that new pages are checked over once, but with less wasted effort (different people checking the same page)