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About 20 to 35 million years ago in the Age of Tertiary the whole region was below sea level. At that time it was covered by an ocean which was warm and not very deep. Lots of sediment sank to the bottom. Then the region rose again and the water receded, leaving soil which is mostly sandy.
The village consists out of the two former independent villages Hainstadt and Klein-Krotzenburg, which are now the two districts of Hainburg. On 1 January 1977 they were united.
Hainburg's neighbors are:
- Hanau and Großkrotzenburg (North) (both Main-Kinzig-Kreis Rural District)
- Kahl and Karlstein (East) (both Aschaffenburg Rural District)
- Seligenstadt (South)
- Rodgau and Obertshausen (West)
Hainburg has 14,528 inhabitants (2008). The climate of the town is mild. There is less rain than in other parts of Germany.
Some local people speak a regional German dialect language with a certain intonation and some different words (slang). It is a Hessian dialect (German: Hessisch). This type of dialect is related to other dialects in southern Germany. A long time ago, almost every town had its own special dialect, making it hard to understand for people from other parts of Germany. Today people who speak this dialect are in the minority and the majority of them do not speak the real dialect. They speak regular German with a special pronunciation of certain words.
In the 12th century the names of both villages Hainstadt and Crutzenburch (Krotzenburg) were written down in documents for the first time.
In those times the most people in the Hainburg area were farmers and craftsmen, rather than tradesmen. Every family had land to grow their food. When the property was handed down to the next generation, it was divided among the children. Therefore, most families had only small farms and were poor.
During the industrial revolution many factories were built in the Rhine Main area and it soon developed into a center for the metal business and leather manufacturing, as well as chemical engineering. Many men learned these trades and found jobs in the factories to earn money. This helped improve living conditions somewhat.
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