Croatia

Republic of Croatia

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Location of  Croatia  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Croatia  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Zagreb
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Official languagesCroatian
Ethnic groups
(2001)
89.6% Croats,
4.5% Serbs,
5.9% others and unspecified
Demonym(s)Croat, Croatian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
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Establishment
Template:Infobox country/multirow
Area
• Total
Template:Convinfobox/prisec2 (126th)
• Water (%)
1.09
Population
• 2011 census
4,290,612[2]
• Density
Template:Convinfobox/prisec2
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$80.983 billion (75th)
• Per capita
$18,338 (48th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$64.160 billion (65th)
• Per capita
$14,529 (44th)
Gini (2008)29[3]
low
HDI (2011)0.796[4]
high · 46th
CurrencyKuna (HRK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code385
ISO 3166 code[[ISO 3166-2:Template:ISO 3166 code|Template:ISO 3166 code]]
Internet TLD.hr

Croatia is a country in Southeastern Europe. Its capital city is Zagreb.

The Republic of Croatia is a small country between the Mediterranean Sea and Central Europe. It was one of the republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It became independent in 1991. It joined the European Union on 1 July 2013.

History

A very long time ago, in this territory lived Illyrian people. They were ruled by Rome. In the seventh century AD, northern Slavic people came to live in the Balkan peninsula. Austria-Hungary made Croatia free from the Ottoman Empire and was ruled in today's Croatia until 1918. In 1918 it became a part of Yugoslavia which was taken over in World War II. After a small war with Italy a fascist dictatorship formed the Independent State of Croatia in 1941. It was not independent for long. Like all other countries in Central Europe the Nazi Germany had strong influence (see also Jasenovac concentration camp).

In 1945, Croatia became a part of new, communist Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) which collapsed in 1991. Croatia is now independent for the second time.

Dalmatia is part of Croatia. Today Croatia is popular for tourists. The country's reliable economy makes it possible for Croatia to join the European Union on 1 July 2013.[5]

Geography

File:Hr-map.png
A map of Croatia

Croatia is in Central and Southeast Europe. The Adriatic Sea is the southwest border. Croatia also has borders with Hungary, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Slovenia.

Croatia is the 127th largest country in the world.[6] The highest point is the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet). Thousands of islands are part of Croatia. 48 have people living there year round. The largest islands are Cres and Krk.[6] Major rivers are the Sava, Drava, Kupa and Danube.

There are many deep caves in Croatia. 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes.

Climate

Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate. Average temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) (in January) and 18 °C (64 °F) (in July). The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar. The warmest are at the Adriatic coast.

Biodiversity

There are several ecoregions in Croatia. The coastline, forests, mountains, and rivers give Croatia diverse flora and fauna. There are more than a thousand endemic species.

Croatia is home to the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm.

There are 444 protected areas of Croatia. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Politics

Croatia adopted its constitution in 1990.[7] It declared independence from Yugoslavia on 8 October 1991.

The President of the Republic is the head of state. The President is directly elected to a five-year term. The Constitution limits the President to a maximum of two terms. Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović became president on 15 February 2015.[1]

The Prime Minister of Croatia is the head of government. Since 22 January 2016, the prime minister of the government is Tihomir Orešković.

Administrative divisions

County Seat Area (km2) Population at
2011 Census
23px Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,652 119,743
23px Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043 158,559
23px Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,783 122,783
23px Istria Pazin 2,820 208,440
23px Karlovac Karlovac 3,622 128,749
23px Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,746 115,582
23px Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,224 133,064
23px Lika-Senj Gospić 5,350 51,022
23px Međimurje Čakovec 730 114,414
23px Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152 304,899
23px Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,845 78,031
23px Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,582 296,123
23px Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,463 172,977
23px Split-Dalmatia Split 4,534 455,242
23px Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,939 109,320
23px Varaždin Varaždin 1,261 176,046
23px Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,068 84,586
23px Vukovar-Syrmia Vukovar 2,448 180,117
23px Zadar Zadar 3,642 170,398
23px Zagreb County Zagreb 3,078 317,642
23px City of Zagreb Zagreb 641 792,875

Economy

Croatia is one of the richest countries of the Balkan Peninsula and of the former Yugoslavia's countries. But Croatia had also the highest cost prices of the whole Central Europe. The average monthly salary/wages in Croatia standing on 739 euro or nearly $1000 USD.[8]

The retirement age for men is 65 years and for women 60 years.[9] The health care enjoys relative strong protection for the country's inhabitants.

Education

The education is free and required until the child reaches the age of 15. Many choose to continue their studies in high school until the age of 18.[10]

Related pages

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Grabar-Kitarovic elected Croatia's first woman president". 12 January 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  2. (in Croatian and English) (PDF) Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. June 2011. p. 13. ISSN 1332-0297. http://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/publication/2011/SI-1441.pdf. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  3. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
  4. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  5. "Croatia to become EU member 1 July 2013". Croatian Times. May 23, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  7. "EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; Conservatives Win in Croatia". The New York Times. 9 May 1990. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  8. "Croatiantimes – Deine Aktien und Trading Zeitung".
  9. http://www.pensionfundsonline.co.uk/89/country-profiles/croatia/
  10. "Regeringens webbplats om mänskliga rättigheter" (PDF). www.manskligarattigheter.se.

Other websites