The Counter-Reformation was a movement within the Roman Catholic Church. Its main aim was to reform and improve it.

It started in the 1500s. Its first period is called the Catholic Reformation. It had many features. They covered the following five areas:

  1. Doctrine
  2. Ecclesiastical or Structural Reconfiguration
  3. Religious orders
  4. Spiritual Movements
  5. Political Dimensions

The Counter-Reformation began after Martin Luther's reformation, which made the many Protestant Churches. That was the Protestant Reformation. In reaction to it, the Catholics doubled their efforts. They also stressed some points of faith that the Protestants' objections had put in danger such as the reinforcement of the seven sacraments and their beliefs on transubstantiation. Penance for example became a private confession.

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