A capital city (or capital town or just capital) is a city or town, specified by law or constitution, by the government of a country, or part of a country, such as a state, province or county. It usually serves as the location of the government's central meeting place and offices. Most of the country's leaders and officials work in the capital city.
Capitals are usually among the largest cities in their regions; often they are the biggest. For example, Montevideo is Uruguay's capital as well as its biggest city. The capital city may also be the most important center of commerce, as in London or Bangkok.
However, a capital is not always the largest city in a country. For example, the capital of the India is New Delhi, which is smaller than Mumbai; and the capital of Pakistan is Islamabad, which is smaller than Karachi. Also, in countries with subdivisions like the United States, the capital cities or towns of the federated states are often not the largest or most populated town. For example, New York City is the biggest city in the United States and in New York but is not the capital of either.
An unusual case exists in Canada; the federal capital, Ottawa, is not the largest city in its province, Ontario, which is Toronto. But Toronto happens to be the capital of the province of Ontario. This way, Toronto is both a capital and a non-capital, depending on how you see it, as a city in a country or part of it.
Some countries have more than one capital, often for different purposes, like Bolivia, which has two (Sucre and La Paz); and South Africa, which has three (Pretoria, Cape Town, and Bloemfontein). In a city-state such as Singapore or Monaco, or the Vatican City, the capital is the country.
Not all countries have capitals. Nauru is a country that does not officially have a capital, but the district of Yaren, which is where the government is, can be called the de facto capital. Also, although many people consider the city of Bern in Switzerland to be the capital of the country, it is in fact not the case by law, but has the status of "federal city" by the government which is based there.
Capitals can be in cities that are already there like London or Rome, or a new town can be built and made the capital like Canberra and Alexandria. Countries can change capitals from time to time. Several cities have been the capital of China. The United States once had its capital in Philadelphia and later in New York City but moved to the new city of Washington, D.C. in 1800. Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil, until the new city of Brasilia was built between 1956 and 1960.
Seat of government
Most countries have their seat of government within their capital city, though some do not. Malaysia has their capital at Kuala Lumpur but their seat of government is at Putrajaya. In the Netherlands, the constitution says that Amsterdam is the de jure capital, but the government is in The Hague.
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