Battle of Iwo Jima

Coordinates: 24°47′N 141°19′E Script error: No such module "Infobox military conflict". The Battle of Iwo Jima was the American capture of the Japanese island of Iwo Jima during the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The USA needed to capture Iwo Jima to be able to defeat Japan. Many films were made about it, for example Flags of our Fathers and Letters from Iwo Jima, both directed by Clint Eastwood.

It lasted from 19 February – 26 March 1945. It was major battle in which the United States Armed Forces captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Empire.

The Americans wanted to capture the island, including its three airfields. The US wanted to use this area for attacks on the Japanese main islands.[1] This five-week battle had violent fighting.

After the heavy losses in the battle, people questioned why the US went into the battle. The island was not useful for the Navy or Air Force.[2]

The Imperial Japanese Army was defended with thick defenses and underground tunnels.[3][4] The Americans had ships that could fire on the island and total control of the air.[5] This invasion was the first American attack on Japanese home territory. Japanese soldiers refused to surrender.

The Japanese general, Tadamichi Kuribayashi, refused to surrender. He and his officers said they would fight until they died.

There were 22,000 Japanese soldiers on Iwo Jima at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner at the end.[6]

About 3000 Japanese soldiers kept fighting for weeks.[6][7]

The Japanese could not retreat or get new soldiers. This meant that the Americans had to win the battle.[8]

The battle was made famous by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi.

This photo became an important image of this battle, of the war in the Pacific, and of the Marine Corps.[9]

Background

After the Americans captured the Marshall Islands in January 1944, the Japanese military leaders thought about their situation.

It looked like the Americans would go toward the Mariana Islands and the Carolines. The Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Japanese Navy (I.J.N.) set up a line of defences.

In March 1945, the Japanese 31st Army, commanded by General Hideyoshi Obata, was ordered to defend this line.

The commander of the Japanese group on Chichi Jima was placed in command of Army and Navy units in the Volcano Islands.[1] After the American capture of the Marianas, they bombed Japan every day. Iwo Jima radioed reports bombers to Japan. This allowed Japan to defend itself against the American bombers.[1]

After the U.S. captured bases in the Marshalls in February 1944, Japanese Army and Navy troops were sent to Iwo Jima. Iwo Jima had more than 5,000 men.[1]

The loss of the Marianas during the summer of 1944 made the Japanese worried about the Volcano Islands. They knew that if the Americans captured these islands, they could do air attacks on Japan.[1] It was hard for Japan to defend the Volcano Islands because Imperial Japanese Navy had lost almost all of its ships.

Japan could not build new airplanes until March or April 1945. Even then, these planes could not fly to Iwo Jima from Japan. Japan did mot have enough pilots and other aircrew.

Iwo Jima was important for two reasons. It was an air base for Japanese fighter planes and it was a safe place for Japanese ships. In addition, it was used by the Japanese to do air attacks on the Mariana Islands.

The capture of Iwo Jima would take away this air base from the Japanese. It would also provide a place to launch the invasion of Japan.

Experts thought Iwo Jima would be captured in one week. The US decided to invade Iwo Jima. Hundreds of tons of Allied bombs did not harm the Japanese defenders, since they were protected.

Planning and preparation

Japanese preparations

By June 1944, Lieutenant General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was ordered to defend Iwo Jima. Kuribayashi knew that Japan could not win the battle. He hoped to kill so many American forces that the Allies would decide not to invade Japan.

Kuribayashi created strong defences with heavy weapons such as heavy machine guns and artillery. Many tunnels were dug. Land mines were placed all over the island.

The amphibious landing

[[File:USS New York-11.jpg|thumb|The battleship [[USS New York (BB-34)|USS New YorkTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory firing its 356 mm (14.0 in) main guns on the island, 16 February 1945]] Starting on 15 June 1944, the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Army Air Forces began to attack the island. Naval artillery shellings and air bombings were done for nine months. Each heavy warship fired for approximately six hours.

The American bombings and continued until 19 February 1945. This was the day the Marines went onto the island. The bombing did not harm the enemy because they had thick defences.

About 450 American ships were near Iwo Jima. The battle involved about 60,000 U.S. Marines.[10]

At 08:59, 30,000 Marines began landing on the beach. The Japanese did not fire their guns for some time. Then the Japanese started firing and many in the first group of Marines were killed by the machine guns.[11]

The Japanese heavy artillery opened their steel doors to fire, and then closed them after. This made it difficult for American units to destroy Japanese artillery.[11] The Japanese soldiers hid in the tunnel system.

With tanks, naval artillery and air bombing on Mount Suribachi, the Marines were able to get past the beaches.[11] About 40,000 more Marines came later.[11]

The fighting on at Iwo Jima was very violent. The advance of the Marines was stopped by defensive positions and artillery. The Marines used flamethrowers and grenades to kill Japanese troops in the tunnels.

Eight Sherman M4A3R3 medium tanks with a flamethrower destroyed Japanese defences. The Japanese ran out of water, food and supplies. The Japanese made more nighttime attacks. Most Japanese soldiers fought to the death.[11]

Raising the flag

File:Iwo-Jima-3c.jpg
U.S. postage stamp, 1945 issue, commemorating the Battle of Iwo Jima

"Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima" is a photograph taken on 23 February 1945 by Joe Rosenthal. It shows five Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the flag of the United States on Mount Suribachi.[9] The photograph was popular. It won a Pulitzer Prize for Photography.[9]

The Japanese troops stayed in the tunnels . They were all killed.[11]

Northern Iwo Jima

File:Browning M1917 Marine Iwo Jima fixed.jpg
A U.S. Marine firing his Browning M1917 machine gun at the Japanese

The Japanese still held positions on the north end.[12] Kuribayashi had eight infantry battalions, a tank regiment, and two artillery and three heavy mortar battalions. Also he had about 5,000 gunners and naval infantry.

The Marines' tanks were destroyed by Japanese fire and mines.[13] Many Americans were killed or wounded.

The Marines attacked in the darkness with no bombing before the attack. Many Japanese soldiers were killed while still sleeping.[14]

On the evening of 8 March, Captain Samaji Inouye and his 1,000 men attacked the Americans. This caused 347 casualties (90 deaths). The Marines counted 784 dead Japanese soldiers the next day.[15]

There was also a kamikaze air attack on the ships anchored at sea on 21 February. This sunk the escort carrier [[USS Bismarck Sea (CVE-95)|USS Bismarck SeaTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory, severely damaged the [[USS Saratoga (CV-3)|USS SaratogaTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory. There was minor damage to the escort carrier [[USS Lunga Point|USS Lunga PointTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory, an LST and a transport.[14]

On 16 March, Kuribayashi's soldiers were still alive on the northwestern end of the island. On 21 March, the Marines blew up the Japanese with four tons of explosives. On 24 March, Marines sealed up the caves.[16]

A 300-man Japanese force attacked Airfield No. 2. There was a 90-minute fight but suffered heavy casualties (53 killed, 120 wounded). The island was finally captured at 09:00 on 26 March.

Weapons

In the Pacific the United States used the M2 flamethrower.[17] These flamethrowers were used to kill Japanese in caves. Marines also had flamethrowers on tanks which were used during battle. They were less useful because of Iwo Jima's rough land. Many other infantry weapons were utilized, including the infamous M1 Garand.

Aftermath

File:Captured Japanese flag on Iwo Jima.jpg
U.S. Marines pose on top of enemy pillbox with a captured Japanese flag

Of the 22,060 Japanese soldiers on the island, 18,844 died from fighting or by suicide. Only 216 were captured during the battle. After Iwo Jima, 3,000 hid in the tunnels.

The 36-day Iwo Jima battle caused more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead."[18] The 82-day Battle for Okinawa resulted in casualties of over 62,000 of whom over 12,000 were killed or missing. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American had more dead or wounded than the Japanese,.[19]

Because all civilians had been removed, there were no civilian casualties at Iwo Jima, unlike at Saipan and Okinawa.[20]

Strategic importance

File:American supplies being landed at Iwo Jima.JPEG
American supplies being landed at Iwo Jima

Given the number of casualties, the importance of the island's capture[21] was controversial.

Iwo Jima was not used by the US Army Air Corp to drop the atomic bombs on Japan. Tinian was the Island both bombers left to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki which where 12 hours out and back.

The argument for capturing Iwo Jima was that it provided a landing and refueling airfield for fighter escorts. Yet only ten missions were ever flown from Iwo Jima.[22]

Japanse fighter aircraft based on Iwo Jima sometimes attacked US forces. Only 11 B-29s were lost.[23]

File:24th marines wwii iwo jima.jpg
Marines from the 24th Marine Regiment during the Battle of Iwo Jima

The Japanese on Iwo Jima had radar[24] and could notify Japanese forces at home of B-29 Superfortresses flying from the Mariana Islands.

However, the capture of Iwo Jima did not affect the Japanese radar system.[25]

Legacy

The United States Navy has several ships of the name [[USS Iwo Jima|USS Iwo JimaTemplate:Square bracket closeTemplate:Ship/maintenancecategory.

On 19 February 1985, the 40th anniversary of the landings, an event called the Reunion of Honor was held.[26] The veterans of both sides who fought in the battle of Iwo Jima attended the event. A memorial was built. Representatives of both countries shook hands.

The importance of the battle to Marines today can be seen. Marines go to the island and to the summit of Suribachi.[27]

The Japanese government continues to search for the bodies of Japanese military troops who were killed during the battle.[28]

Medal of Honor awards

The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is given to a member of the United States armed forces who show bravery and risks his life in a battle. The medal is often awarded after death. It has been given only 3,464 times.

During this one-month-long battle, 27 U.S. military personnel were given the Medal of Honor for their actions, 14 of them after death.

Movies and documentaries

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Cite error: Template:Broken ref/langTemplate:Broken ref/cat
  2. Pratt, William V. (2 April 1945). "What Makes Iwo Jima Worth the Price". Newsweek. p. 36.
  3. "Letters from Iwo Jima". World War II Multimedia Database.
  4. "Battle of Iwo Jima—Japanese Defense". World War II Naval Strategy.
    1. REDIRECT Template:Cite AV media
  5. 6.0 6.1 Cite error: Template:Broken ref/langTemplate:Broken ref/cat
  6. John Toland, Rising Sun - The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, page 669
  7. Adrian R. Lewis, The American Culture of War. The History of U.S. Military Force from World War II to Operation Iraqi Freedom, New York 2007, p. 59
  8. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Landsberg, Mitchell (1995). "Fifty Years Later, Iwo Jima Photographer Fights His Own Battle". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  9. "United States Marine Corps War Memorial". The George Washington University. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  10. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Template:Cite book
  11. Keith Wheeler, THE ROAD TO TOKYO, Time-Life Books, 1979, Alexandria, Virginia, p.50
  12. Robert Leckie, DELIVERED FROM EVIL, Harper & Row, 1987, New York, p870
  13. 14.0 14.1 Robert Leckie, p.872
  14. Keith Wheeler
  15. Moskin, pp.372–373
  16. "Flamethrower". Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  17. "Battle for Iwo Jima, 1945". The Navy Department Library. 16January 2008.
  18. O'Brien, Cyril J. "Iwo Jima Retrospective". Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  19. "Selected March Dates of Marine Corps Historical Significance". History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  20. "The Battle of Iwo Jima". History Department at the University of San Diego. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  21. Assistant Chief of Air Staff (September–October 1945). "Iwo, B-29 Haven and Fighter Springboard". Impact. pp. 69–71.
  22. Template:Cite book
  23. Template:Cite book
  24. Joint War Planning Committee 306/1, "Plan for the Seizure of Rota Island," 25 January 1945.
  25. Marling, Karal Ann; & Wetenhall, John (1991). "Iwo Jima: Monuments, Memories, and the American Hero" (PDF). Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Retrieved April 6, 2016.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. Blumenstein, LCpl Richard; Sgt. Ethan E. Rocke (October–December 2007). "From Black Sands to Suribachi's Summit: Marines Reflect on Historic Battle". Marines Magazine. United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  27. Kyodo News, "Map of Iwojima's underground bunkers found in U.S.", Japan Times, 6 May 2012, p. 2.
  28. "Outsider (1961)". imdb. Retrieved 2 January 2008.

References

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Online

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  • Template:Cite book
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  • Dyer, George Carroll (1956). "The Amphibians Came to Conquer: The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner". United States Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  • "Animated Map History of The Battle of Iwo Jima (including Medal of Honor citations)". HistoryAnimated.com.
  • "The Battle for Iwo Jima (color combat footage)". SonicBomb.com.
  • Brady, John H. "Iwo Jima". Iwo Jima, Inc.
  • "Battle of Iwo Jima". WW2DB.com. – Site contains 250 photographs.
  • Williams, Greg. "Dimensions of Valor" (Flash). Tampa Tribune. TBO.com. – 3-D Stereo Photograph of Iwo Jima Flag-raising.
  • "Mt. Suribachi HDR Image". Japan Photos. February 2007. – A tone-mapped High Dynamic Range Image of Iwo Jima.
  • "Iwo Jima: Forgotten Valor". Primary Source Adventures. Portal to Texas History, University of North Texas.
  • Dawson, Rick (2007). "The Battle of Iwo Jima". ArticleMyriad.com.
  • "Iwo Jima Combat Footage in Color". WW2incolor.com.
  • Lemer, Jeremy (15 February 2005). "Remembering the Battle of Iwo Jima". Columbia News Service. Archived from the original on 8 September 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2006.
  • "Operations map of Iwo Jima" (JPG). 23 October 1944.
  • "Collection of military maps of Iwo Jima". Historical Resources. 15 September 2008.
  • "To the Shores of Iwo Jima" (Video). Google Video.
  • "Battle of Iwo Jima". History of War.
  • Alexander, Colonel Joseph (2000). "Battle of Iwo Jima". HistoryNet.com and World War II magazine.
  • "Iwo Jima Pictures". WW2-Pictures.com.
  • "Victory At Sea: Target Suribachi" (Video). Internet Archive. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  • "Rare photos of the Battle of Iwo Jima from the U.S. National Archives and the Department of Defense, USMC". Awesome Stories. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  • "Daily summaries of fighting, Medal of Honor citations, a listing of those who died on Iwo Jima, and maps of the battle". Iwojimahistory.com. Retrieved 8 November 2011.

Other websites