Ashkenazi Jews

Ashkenazi Jews
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Total population
10[1]–11.2[2] million
Regions with significant populations
23x15px United States5–6 million[3]
23x15px Israel2.8 million[1][4]
23x15px Russia194,000–500,000
23x15px Argentina300,000
23x15px United Kingdom260,000
23x15px Canada240,000
23x15px France200,000
23x15px Germany200,000
23x15px Ukraine150,000
23x15px Australia120,000
23x15px South Africa80,000
23x15px Belarus80,000
23x15px Hungary75,000
23x15px Chile70,000
23x15px Belgium30,000
23x15px Brazil80,000
23x15px Netherlands30,000
23x15px Moldova30,000
23x15px Poland25,000
23x15px Mexico18,500
23x15px Sweden18,000
23x15px Latvia10,000
23x15px Romania10,000
23x15px Austria9,000
23x15px New Zealand5,000
23x15px Azerbaijan4,300
23x15px Lithuania4,000
23x15px Czech Republic3,000
23x15px Slovakia3,000
23x15px Estonia1,000
Languages
Yiddish[5]
Modern: Local languages, primarily English, Hebrew, Russian
Religion
Judaism, some secular, irreligious
Related ethnic groups
Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Samaritans,[6][6][7][8] Kurds,[8] other Levantines (Druze, Assyrians,[6][7] Arabs[6][7][9][10]), Mediterranean groups (Italians,[11][12] Spaniards[13])[14][15][16][17]

Ashkenazi Jews / Ashkenazic Jews / Ashkenazim are Jews who originally lived in northern and eastern Europe. They once lived in the area of Rhineland and France and after the crusades they moved to Poland, Lithuania and Russia. In the 17th century, avoiding persecution, many Jews moved to and settled in Western Europe.

Scientists believe that Ashkenazi Jews originally came from the Land of Israel and initially went to Italy, France, and Germany. Later, during pogroms in the middle ages, mainly in Germany, they fled to Poland and Lithuania, and from there they spread over the rest of Eastern Europe. They then adopted the Yiddish language.[18][19]

After that, two terms, Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews, became commonly used: The former indicates the Jews who worshiped in the German way and spoke Yiddish, the latter indicates the Jews who worshiped in the Spanish way and spoke the Ladino language. They differ in language (pronunciation), cultural tradition and worship style.

During World War II, about 6 million Jews, 5 million of whom were Ashkenazi, were killed in the Holocaust. The Holocaust destroyed or greatly reduced the large Jewish communities and the Yiddish language in Europe. Many of the surviving Ashkenazi Jews emigrated to countries such as Israel, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and the United States after the war.

Today Ashkenazim are 80% of Jews of the world. They are also the mainstream of Israeli politics. Famous Ashkenazim are Albert Einstein, George Gershwin, Gustav Mahler, Franz Kafka.

Related pages

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Ashkenazi Jews". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  2. "First genetic mutation for colorectal cancer identified in Ashkenazi Jews". The Gazette. Johns Hopkins University. 8 September 1997. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
  3. Feldman, Gabriel E. (May 2001). "Do Ashkenazi Jews have a Higher than expected Cancer Burden? Implications for cancer control prioritization efforts". Israel Medical Association Journal 3 (5): 341–46. http://www.ima.org.il/IMAJ/ViewArticle.aspx?aId=2748. Retrieved 2013-09-04. 
  4. Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009, CBS. "Table 2.24 – Jews, by country of origin and age" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  5. "Yiddish".
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And Lebanese". Science Daily. 2000-05-09. Retrieved 2013-07-19.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Study Finds Close Genetic Connection Between Jews, Kurds". 21 November 2001 – via Haaretz.
  9. Wade, Nicholas (9 June 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  10. "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  11. "Banda et al. "Admixture Estimation in a Founder Population". Am Soc Hum Genet, 2013".
  12. Bray, SM; Mulle, JG; Dodd, AF; Pulver, AE; Wooding, S; Warren, ST (September 2010). "Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (37): 16222–16227. doi:10.1073/pnas.1004381107. PMC 2941333. PMID 20798349. http://www.pnas.org/content/107/37/16222.full. 
  13. Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL (December 2008). "The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Genetics 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982. 
  14. Seldin MF, Shigeta R, Villoslada P (September 2006). "European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations". PLoS Genet. 2 (9): e143. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020143. PMC 1564423. PMID 17044734. http://genetics.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pgen.0020143 [permanent dead link]
  15. M. D. Costa and 16 others (2013). "A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages". Nature Communications 4: 2543. doi:10.1038/ncomms3543. PMC 3806353. PMID 24104924. 
  16. "Jewish Women's Genes Traced Mostly to Europe – Not Israel – Study Hits Claim Ashkenazi Jews Migrated From Holy Land". The Jewish Daily Forward. 12 October 2013.
  17. Shai Carmi; Ken Y. Hui; Ethan Kochav; Xinmin Liu; James Xue; Fillan Grady; Saurav Guha; Kinnari Upadhyay et al. (September 2014). "Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports population-targeted personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins". Nature Communications 5: 4835. doi:10.1038/ncomms5835. PMC 4164776. PMID 25203624. http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140909/ncomms5835/full/ncomms5835.html. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  18. "The Jews of Poland". Bernard Dov Weinryb. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  19. http://www.yale.edu/ccr/woodworth/woodworth_Yiddish_Jan2010.pdf