In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire went into the World War I on the side of the Central Powers. İsmail Enver, who was then the Minister of War, launched a disastrous military campaign against Russian forces in the Caucasus in hopes of capturing the city of Baku. His forces were routed at the Battle of Sarikamis, and many more of his men froze to death.
Returning to Istanbul, Enver largely blamed the Armenians living in the region for actively siding with the Russians. In spite of these obstacles, the Armenians thrived under Ottoman rule. The Armenians tended to be better educated and wealthier than their Turkish neighbors, who in turn tended to resent their success. This resentment was compounded by suspicions that the Christian Armenians would be more loyal to Christian governments (that of the Russians, who shared an unstable border with Turkey) than they were to the Ottoman caliphate.
In 1914, the Ottoman Empire's War Office had already begun a propaganda drive to present Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire as a liability and threat to the country's security. An Ottoman naval officer in the War Office described the planning:
|“||In order to justify this enormous crime the requisite propaganda material was thoroughly prepared in Istanbul. [It included such statements as] "the Armenians are in league with the enemy. They will launch an uprising in Istanbul, kill off the Ittihadist leaders and will succeed in opening the straits [of the Dardanelles]."||”|
The Ottoman government, moving quickly, arrested an estimated 250 Armenian intellectuals on the night of 24 April 1915. The acts of Genocide against the Armenians continued for 9 years until 1922, with around 388,000 Armenians remaining.
The Turkish massacres of Armenians in 1894, 1895, 1896, and 1909 were still fresh in their minds.
Acts Committed by the Turks
In the beginning, around 1915-1916, Armenians would be kicked out of their homes, which would be claimed by Turks. During a “Turkification” campaign, the government squads kidnapped children, converted them to Islam and gave them to Turkish families. In some places, they raped and forced women to join Turkish “harems” or serve as slaves.Women would mar their bodies with scars or burn a part of their face to be unfit to join a harem. Muslim families moved into the homes of deported Armenians and seized their property.
At the same time, the Turks created a “Special Organization,” which in turn organized “killing squads” or “butcher battalions” to carry out, as one officer put it, “the liquidation of the Christian elements.” These killing squads were often made up of murderers and other ex-convicts. People were drowned in rivers, threw off cliffs, crucified and burned alive.
|“||"I am confident that the whole history of the human race contains no such horrible episode as this. The great massacres and persecutions of the past seem almost insignificant when compared with the sufferings of the Armenian race in 1915." Henry Morgenthau, American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, 1913-1916. -Henry Morgenthau||”|
Denial of killings
Guenter Lewy claims in his book,The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Genocide, that there is not enough evidence of the Young Turk regime organizing the killings of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. According to Lewy, even though their fate in World War I proved tragic, it was not a ‘‘real’’ genocide, because ‘‘there were no centrally organized and state-sponsored premeditation and genocidal intention‘‘.
A major obstacle for wider recognition of the genocide in the world is the official position of Turkey, which they state that there was no systematic attempt to annihilate the Armenian population and the 1915 massacres were made because of the Tehcir Law and WW1. In December 2008 a group of Turkish scholars launched an online petition for people who wanted to apologize for what happened. The people who created the petition didn’t use the word “genocide” instead they used the word “the Great Catastrophe” regarding the event. Many Turks viewed the Armenians as having been a threat to the Ottoman Empire in a time of war, arguing that people of various ethnicities were killed during the violence. Turkey and their leaders fear that recognizing the word “genocide” could likely cost the considerable sums of money in reparations, as well as public embarrassment.
"In 1922-23 Near East Relief evacuated 22,000 children from ophanages in interior Turkey to Syria and Greece. These two pictures show part of the 5,000 children from Karput en route on donkey back and foot"
Massacres of Erzeroum of October 30, 1895
Armenian women put up for auction.
- "Cultural Cleansing: Who Remembers The Armenians," in Robert Bevan. The Destruction of Memory, Reaction Books, London. 2006, pages 25-60
- Balakian. The Burning Tigris, p. 200
- Dadrian., History of the Armenian Genocide, p. 220
- Balakian. The Burning Tigris, pp. 211-212
- "A Peace to End All Peace", by David Fromkin, p211.
- Lewy, Guenter (Fall 2005). "Revisiting the Armenian Genocide". Middle East Quarterly. http://www.meforum.org/article/748.
- See Taner Akçam, Guenter Lewy’s The Armenian Massacres in Ottoman Turkey." Genocide Studies and Prevention, 3:1 April 2008, pp. 111-143.
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