Android (operating system)
Android 8.1 Oreo home screen
|Company / developer||Google,|
Open Handset Alliance
|Programmed in||Java (UI), C (core), C++ and more|
|Source model||Open source (most devices include proprietary components, such as Google Play)|
|Initial release||September 23, 2008|
|Latest stable release||9 "Pie" / August 7, 2017|
|Marketing target||Smartphones, tablet computers, smartTVs (Android TV), Android Auto and smartwatches (Wear OS)|
|Package manager||APK (primarily through Google Play; installation of APKs also possible locally or from alternative sources such as F-Droid)|
|Supported platforms||32- and 64-bit ARM, x86 and x86-64|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)|
|Userland||Bionic libc, mksh shell, Toybox as core utilities beginning with Android 6.0, previously native core utilities with a few from NetBSD|
|Default user interface||Graphical (multi-touch)|
|License||Apache License 2.0|
GNU GPL v2 for the Linux kernel modifications
Android is an operating system for mobile devices. It is mostly used for smartphones, like Google's own Google Pixel, as well as by other phone manufacturers like HTC and Samsung. It has also been used for tablets such as the Motorola Xoom and Amazon Kindle. A modified Linux kernel is used as Android's kernel.
Google says that over 1.3 million Android smartphones are sold every day. Most mobile phones run Android, making it the most popular mobile operating system. It is also the most popular operating system in general.
It supports multitasking and two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphics.
Programs for Android, also called "apps", come from the Google Play Store. The Android programs have an extension of .apk. Google states that "Android apps can be written using Kotlin, Java, and C++ languages", while using other languages are also possible; such as Python and Go and those languages and even C++ may have restrictions. Large portions of the operating system itself are also written in Java. There are over 2.6 million apps available for Android in the Google Play Store. Some apps are distributed elsewhere.
Android version numbers and names
- 1.1: (No codename)
- 1.1: Petit Four
- 1.5: Cupcake
- 1.6: Donut
- 2.0 and 2.1: Eclair
- 2.2: Froyo (FROzen YOgurt)
- 2.3: Gingerbread
- 3.x: Honeycomb (a tablet-only version)
- 4.0: Ice Cream Sandwich
- 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3: Jelly Bean
- 4.4: KitKat
- 5.0 and 5.1: Lollipop
- 6.0 and 6.0.1: Marshmallow
- 7.0 and 7.1: Nougat
- 8.0: Oreo
- 9.0: Pie
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