She was born in Saratoga County, New York. Her father’s name was Lemuel Powers. Her father died shortly after her birth. After this, her mother moved away westward to less settled area. Abigail Powers had a brother also. Their mother gave them a good education with the help of her husband’s library.
When Abigail Powers was around 19 years old and a student at an academy at New Hope, New York, she met Millard Fillmore. He was also studying in the same academy. They married in February 1826. In 1828, she had a son, named Millard Powers Fillmore. After few years, Fillmore bought a home in Buffalo, New York where she had a daughter, Mary Abigail. During the next few years, her husband was elected to the U.S. Congress. Her husband became a state comptroller. In 1849, her husband became the Vice President of the United States. The couple moved to the Washington, D.C.. After 16 months, President Zachary Taylor died. Millard Fillmore became the President and they moved into the White House.
During last several years, Abigail Powers had learnt to move in the high society. She did a fine role as the First Lady.
She had a permanently injured ankle. This made standing difficult to greet guests. But, she still continued to act as the first lady. Later on, due to her bad health, she gave many routine duties of the First Lady to her daughter, "Abby."
Abigail Powers could get a special sanction of money from the government. With this, she bought many books for the library at the White House. After her husband’s retirement, she attended the inauguration of President Franklin Pierce. She returned to her hotel room. Due to very chill weather, she became sick with pneumonia. On 30th March, 1853, she died of pneumonia. In her respect, the United States Congress adjourned (that is, stopped working) for that day, and government offices remained closed. She was buried at Buffalo.